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नेपालको मंगोल समुदायको पुरानो चिनारी

muluki_yen-689x1024१९१० को मुलुकी ऐनमा माथि उल्लेख गरिएको कुराहरू लेखिएको छ । यहिनै नेपालको सबैभन्दा पहिलो लिखित कानुन हो ।

आज भन्दा झण्डै २८ सय बर्ष अगाडिको नेपालको मंगोल समुदायको इतिहासको कुरा हो । नेपाल भन्ने हाम्रो देश (काठमाण्डौं) मा महादेव पार्वती भन्ने महाशक्तिशाली (प्राकृतिक शक्ति), ज्ञानी, धर्मात्मा र उद्धार हृदय भएको राजा रानी थिए । जसलाई हामी पारूहाङ र सुम्नीमा भनेर चिन्छौं । जो मंगोल समुदायको पुर्खाका सन्तान हुन् । मंगोल (मगर, तमाङ, तमु, राई, लिम्बु तथा अन्य विभिन्न नामले चिनिने हामीहरूलाई मूलवासी, आदीवासी जे भने पनि एउटै अर्थ हो । त्यही महादेव राजाले आज हामीले मान्दै आएका किराँत, बोन, प्रकृतिक धर्म, युमासाम धर्म, सामानिजम धर्मको राज्यमा सुरूवात गराउनुभएको थियो । जस्तै उदाहरणको लागी हामीले खाना खानु अधि तीन पटक सानोटुक्रा चढाउनु र कुनै किसीमको पेयपदार्थ पिउनु  अघि पेय पदार्थलाई तीन पटक छ्योत गर्नु । यसको अर्थ हो पहिलो पुस्ता, दोस्रो पुस्ता (अहिलेको पुस्ता) र आउने पुस्तालाई सधै सम्झीनु  भनेको हो । त्यस्तै अर्को फलाम वा अन्य धातुको त्रिसुल (Symbol) बनाएर बोक्नु र आफ्नो पुर्खाहरूको चिहानमा राख्नु । यसको अर्थ हो हाम्रो पहिलाको पुर्खा, अहिलेको पुर्खा र आउने पुर्खाहरू सधैनै आगोको ज्वाला बलेको झै बलिरहनु, चम्कि रहनु भनेको हो । महादेवको अर्थ ‘म’ भनेको मंगोल, ‘हा’ भनेको हाङ र देव भनेको देउता, देउ, देवा भनेर हाम्रो मंगोल समुदायका मातृभाषाहरूमा प्रयोग भएको हुन्छ । महादेव राजाको दरवार अहिलेको काठमाण्डौंमा रहेको पशुपतिनाथको मन्दिर हो र चिहान पनि हो । महादेवलाई उहाँको मृत्यु पश्चात त्यही पशुपतिनाथको मन्दिर वरीपरीनै गाड्नु भएको थियो । किन कि हाम्रो गाउँघरमा आज-भोली पनि धामी झाँक्रीको मृत्यु भए पश्चात नजिकैको जंगल वा स्थानमा लगेर गाड्ने र दाहसंस्कार गर्ने चलन छ । पशुपतिमा भएको कलि (अंशुबर्मा) को मुर्ती तमाङ्ग बल राजाको मुर्ती हो । जसलाई हामीले अंशु बर्मा भनेर चिनेका छौं, चिनाएका छन् । अंशु बर्माको नाम हाङसा बल हो ।

अंशु बर्मा (हाङसा बल) नेपालको २१औं किराँती (मंगोल) राजा हो । तेस्रो पटक नेपालको मंगोलहरूको बंशज र कुल छुट्टिने क्रममा राजा अंशु बर्माले त्यसबेलाका तिब्बतका ३३औं राजा सोङचाङ गोम्पोलाई पनि निमन्त्रणा गर्नुभएको थियो र यसै क्रममा राजा सोङचाङ गोम्पो नेपाल आइपुग्नुभएको थियो ।

अंशु बर्माको छोरी भृकुटीको विवाह तिब्बतको ३३ औं राजा सोङचाङ गोम्पो संग छैठौ सताब्दीको मध्य तिर (632 AD) मा भएको हो । तिब्बतमा भृकुटीलाई बल(बलस्या)भनेर पनि सम्बोधन गरेको र यसरी नै इतिहासमा पनि लेखिएको पाइन्छ । बल तमाङको १६० थर मध्येको एउटा थर हो । बलस्या भनेको तमाङ्गको बल थरको छोरी हो भन्ने बुझीन्छ । यस अर्थमा अंशु बर्मा (हाङसा बल) तमाङ्ग थियो भन्ने प्रष्ट हुन्छ । इन्द्रचोकमा भएको आकाश भैरवको मुर्ती नेपालको इतिहासमा लेखिए अनुसार नेपालको पहिलो मंगोल किराँती राजा यलम्बरको मुर्ति हो ।  नेपालको पहिलो राजा बङसासुर हुन् र बङसासुर राजालाई अहिलेको भारतबाट आएका गोपाल बंशका सेना भुक्तमानले जालझेल गरि हत्या गरेर शासन सत्ता हातमा लिए पछि भुक्तमानको बंशले ८औं बंश सम्म राज्य चलाए थिए । भुक्तमानको ८औं बंशज भुवनसिंहलाई बङसासुर राजाका बंशज राजा यलम्बरले लडाईमा हराउनुभए पछि यलम्बरले उत्पत्याका स्थित थानकोटलाई राजधानी बनाउनुभएको थियो ।  राजा यलम्बरले ९० बर्षको उमेर सम्म शासन गर्नुभए पछि उहाँले आफ्नो जेठा छोरा पालाम्बा लाई सत्ता सुम्पिनुभएको थियो । पालाम्बाले ८१ बर्षको उमेर सम्म शासन गर्नुभयो । यसकारण राजा यलम्बरलाई इतिहास बिद्धहरूले नेपालको पहिलो मंगोल (किराँती) राजा भनेर भन्नुभएको हो । राजा पालाम्बाले राजधानी थानकोट नजिकै राजा बङसासुरको सम्झनामा सुप्रभा भन्ने नयाँ बस्तीको स्थापना गर्नुभएको थियो र उहाँले आफ्नो नाम पनि किराँतीसुर भनि घोषणा गर्नुभयो । यसरी नै किराँती भन्ने शब्दको सुरूवात भएको हो । किराँतीको अर्थ बंश भनेको हो ।
आकाश भैरवको पुजा अगष्ट/सेप्टेम्बर महिनामा इन्द्रजात्राको दिनमा गर्ने गरिन्छ । इन्द्रजात्रा आठ दिन सम्म मनाउने चलन छ । त्यहि दिन मात्र सर्वसाधारण नागरिकको लागी खुल्ला गरिन्छ । अन्य दिनमा सधै माक्स लगाएर राखिएको हुन्छ । काठमाडौंको चाबहिलमा रहेको बौद्ध स्तुपा (चारूमती चैत्य) आज भन्द २३ सय बर्ष अघि चारूमती भन्ने रानीको मृत्यु पश्चात उहाँको अस्तु राखेर सम्झना स्वरूप बनाएको स्तुपा (चैत्य) हुन् । चारूमती सम्राट अशोककी छोरी हुन् । चारूमती आजभन्द २२८१ बर्ष अघि सम्राट अशोक संग नेपाल घुम्न आउनुभएको थियो । त्यहि समयमा चारूमतीको विवाह नेपालको राजकुमार देउपालसंग भएको थियो ।
मंगोल इतिहास अनुसार सम्राट अशोक १४औं राजा स्तुङगोको निमन्त्रणामा आउनुभएको थियो । किन कि मंगोल राजाहरूको हरेक सात पुस्तामा बंश वा कुल छुट्टिने प्रचलन थियो । त्यही बेलामा पुर्व, पश्चिम, उत्तर, दक्षिणमा भएका सम्पूर्ण राजाहरूलाई पनि निमन्त्रणा दिने चलन थियो । यसरी दोस्रो पटक नेपालको मंगोलहरूको वंश वा कुल छुट्टीयो । पहिलो वंश वा कुल छुट्टिएको  चाँही सातौं राजा जितेदस्तीको पालामा थियो । त्यही समयमा अहिले  बौद्धमार्गीहरूले भगवान मान्ने बुद्धलाई केन्द्रिय राज्यमा निमन्त्रणा दिनुभएको थियो  र त्यही समय देखि केन्द्रिय राज्यमा बुद्धिजमको थालनी भएको हो ।
काठमाण्डौंमा भएको स्वयम्भू स्तुपा आज भन्द २५ सय बर्ष अघि निर्माण भएको हो । स्वयम्भू  तमाङ्ग राजाको दरवार पनि र चिहान पनि हो । आज भोली पनि काठमाण्डौंमा मृत्यु भएका तमाङ्गहरूलाई मृत्यु पश्चात स्वयम्भूमा लगेर जलाईन्छ वा दाहसंस्कार गरीन्छ । तमाङ्गहरूले स्वयम्भुलाई आबा (बु्बा) को रूपमा पुज्ने गरिन्छ भने बौद्धलाई आमाको रूपमा पुज्ने गरिन्छ । बौद्ध तमाङ्ग रानीको चिहान हो र दरवार पनि हो । तमाङ्गहरूको संस्कारमा कुनै पनि गन्ने मान्ने ठूला व्यक्तिको मृत्युपश्चात उहाँहरूको सम्झनामा माने, चौतारा, स्तुपा, चैत्य बनाउने चलन अझै पनि छ । स्तुपाको माथिको भाग छ्योर्तेनमा चारै दिशा तर्फ आँखाको आकृती चित्रण गरिने चलन छ । यसरी चित्रण गरिएको आँखाको अर्थ मेरो मंगोलको सन्तानहरू पुर्व, पश्चिम, उत्तर, दक्षिण जहाँ बसोवास गरे पनि सबैलाई मेरो माया बराबर हुन्छ भनेको हो ।
छ्योर्तेनको अँखाको तल्लो भागमा नेपाली अक्षरमा १ लेखिएको हुन्छ । त्यसको अर्थ हो जहाँ र जुनसुकै ठाँउमा बसे पनि मेरो मंगोलको सन्तानहरू एक भएर बस्नु भनेको हो । तमाङ्गहरूको संस्कृतिमा ताम्बा, गान्बा, लामा र भोन्बोको छुट्टा छुट्टै भूमिका, महत्त्व र अस्तित्व हुन्छ । यी चारैवटा अभिन्न संस्कृतिक अंगहरूले आफ्नो मंगोल सन्तानहरूको हितको लागि सधै नै आवश्यक अवस्थामा एक भएर निर्णाय गर्नु भनेको पनि हो । हाम्रो गाउँघरमा हाम्रो पुर्खाहरूको भनाई पनि छ । हामी मंगोलका सन्तानहरू एक्लै बाँच्न सकिदैन । त्यसैले मेरो मंगोल सन्तानहरू सधै एक भएर बस्नु र जिउनु भनेर भन्ने गरेको सुनिन्छ ।
नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायको पुरानो इतिहासहरू सबै नै नेपालको सामानिजमको मुन्धुम धर्मग्रन्थहरू जस्तै थुङसाप मुन्धुम, पेसाप मुन्धुम, सोक-सोक मुन्धुम, एहाङ्ग मुन्धुम, साप्जी मुन्धुम, साप मुन्धुमहरू किराँत लिपीमा लेखिएका छन् । नेपालको बुद्धिजमको धर्मग्रन्थहरू जस्तै दोमाङ, दोङगराप, फाराप, कङग्युर, तम्बा काइतेन  तथा अन्य साम्भोटा लिपीमा लेखिएका ग्रन्थ (किताब) हरू छन् । यी ग्रन्थ (किताब) हरूमा भएको भाषा ९० प्रतिशत भन्दा धेरै नेपालको सवै मंगोलहरूले बोल्ने मातृभाषमा बोलीने शब्दहरूमा लेखिएका छन् । यो सातौं र आठौं सताब्दीमा लेखिएका हुन् भनेर इतिहासकार र पुरातत्वबिदहरूले प्रमाणित गरिसक्नु भएको छ । सम्भोटा लिपी नेपालको सबै भन्दा पुरानो लिपी हो । सम्भोटा लिपी तमाङ्गहरूको लिपी हो भन्ने कुरा सम्पूर्ण तमाङ्गहरूले बुझ्नु पर्छ । सम्भोटा लिपी भनेको विश्वभरका बुद्धिजमका ग्रन्थ (किताब) हरूको मास्टर लिपी हो । तिब्बतमा लेखिएका जती पनि बुद्धिजमका ग्रन्थहरू छन्  ति सवै बाह्रौं शताब्दीको सुरूवातमा मात्र लेखिएका हुन् र यस पछि मात्रै चिन, मंगोलीया र  भुटान तथा अन्य देशहरूमा पनि फैलिएका हुन् ।
‘तमाङ्ग’ शब्दको को अर्थ : ‘त’ भनेको महान हो, पुरानो मंगोल/मंङको भाषामा र ‘माङ्ग’को अर्थ महान, बृहत, समुदाय, प्राकृतिक शक्ति भएको, प्राकृतिक देव भगवान आदी हुन् । राई, लिम्बू, मगर र अन्य केही मंगोल समुदायको मतृभाषमा माङ्गको अर्थ देउता, भगवान, देव भनेर भनिन्छ । चिनियाँ भाषा र बर्मेली भाषामा माङ्गको अर्थ मंगोल भनेर परिभाषीत गरिएको छ । यस अर्थमा तमाङ्गको अर्थ महान भगवान, महान मंगोल, महान प्राकृतिक देव भनेर बुझिन्छ र बुझ्नुपर्छ ।
‘तमु’ शब्दको को अर्थ :  ‘त’ को अर्थ महान हो र ‘मु’ को अर्थ मंगोलको मातृभाषामा आकाशलाई बुझाउँछ । प्राकृतिक धर्म मान्ने मंगोल समुदायले आकाश, हिमाल, पहाड, नदी, रूख, पशु, पन्छी र आफ्नो पुर्खाहरूलाई भगवान, देव, देवी रदेउताको रूपमा पुजा गर्ने गरिन्छ । यस अर्थमा तमु भनेको महान आकाश मान्ने महान मंगोल हो भनेर बुझिन्छ र बुझ्नु पर्छ ।
‘मगर’ शब्दको को अर्थ : 'म' मङ्ग्, माङ्ग, मङगरबाट सभ्यताको विकासको क्रममा मगर भनेर भनियो, चिनियो र चिनाइयो । मङग, माङग भनेको नेपालको मंगोल समुदायको मातृभाषमा देवी, देउता हुन् ।  मगरहरूको धेरै पुरानो इतिहासहरूमा मङगर भनेर सम्बोधन गरेको पाईन्छ । यस अर्थमा मगर भनेको देवी, देउता हो भनेर बुझिन्छ र बुझ्नु पर्छ ।
‘लामा’ शब्दको को अर्थ :  ‘ला’ भनेको देउता, ‘मा’ भनेको माङग हो ।
‘शेर्पा’ शब्दको को अर्थ : मंगोलहरूको मातृभाषामा ‘स्यार’ भनेको पूर्व हो, र ‘पा’ भनेको मानिस हो । १५औं शताब्दीको मध्ये तिर नेपालको पूर्वदिशा तर्फ बसोबास गर्ने मंगोल समुदायलाई स्यारपा भनिन्थ्यो र पछि शेर्पा भनियो ।
‘लिम्बू’ शब्दको को अर्थ : ‘लि’ भनेको मंगोलको मातृभाषामा धनु हो, ‘म’ को अर्थ मंगोल हो र ‘बू’ को अर्थ राज्य हो भनेर मंगोलको मातृभाषमा बुझिन्छ । राई, लिम्बू, किराँती र अन्य समुदायको मातृभाषामा यो शब्दको व्यापक प्रयोग भएको पाइन्छ । यस अर्थमा लिम्बूको अर्थ भनेको धनु चलाउने मंगोल राजाहरू हो भनेर बुझिन्छ र यसरी नै बुझ्नुपर्छ ।
‘राई’ शब्दको को अर्थ : पृथ्वीनारायण शाहको शासन काल भन्दा केही समय अगाडिको समयमा पूर्व दिशामा राज्य चलाउने मंगोल, किराँत राजाहरूलाई राई भनेर सम्बोधन गरेको इतिहासमा लेखिएको पाइन्छ । त्यस समय भन्दा पहिले पूर्व दिशा र पश्चिम दिशामा राज्य चलाउने मंगोल, किराँत राजाहरूलाई हाङ अथवा खान भनेर लेखिएको पनि पुरानो इतिहासमा पाइन्छ । जस्तै बलिहाङ राजा, पारूहाङ राजा, राजा बुद्धि कर्ण राई, विजय नारायण राई आदी ।
राजा बुद्धि कर्ण राई (1769–1773AD) सम्म मोरङका राजा रहेको थियो । राजा विजय नारायण राई (1584-1709 AD) सम्म विजयपुरका राजा रहेको थियो ।
खान भनेको बार्हौ सताब्ती 1219 AD तिर मंगोल राजाहरूलाई मध्य एसीयामा खान भनिन्थ्यो । मंगोल भनेको बार्हौ शताब्दीमा मंगोलीयाका खान सम्राटहरूले साम्राज्य विस्तार गर्ने क्रममा माङग्ग, माङ्ग, मोङ्गलाई परिमार्जित गरेर मंगोल भन्ने शब्द प्रचलनमा ल्याइयो र हामीहरू सबै मंगोल भनेर चिनिएका हुन् । यस अर्थमा हामी मंगोलीया भन्ने देशको नागरिक मंगोलीयन होइन भनेर बुझ्नु पर्छ र  बुझाउनु पर्छ । एसियामा भएका सबै एसियनहरू मंगोलहरू हो । तर, नेपालको मंगोलहरू भनेको एसियाकै मंगोलहरूको धर्म, संस्कार र संस्कृतिको पनि पुर्खा हो । यो हामीले बुझ्नु पर्छ र बुझाउनु पर्छ । जब भारतका हिन्दू राजपुतहरू अहिको भारतको मंगोल, मुगोल सम्राट अकबरको आक्रमणबाट बचेर जिउ ज्यान जोगाउन नेपालमा पश्चिम भेगबाट नेपालको मगर खान राज्यमा आइपुग्यो । त्यसबेला भिरकोटमा मगर खान राजाका जेठा छोरा खानझा खान राजा थियो । खानझा खानलाई राजपुतहरूले झालझेल गरि मगरहरूको राज्य आफ्नो कब्जामा पार्नको लागि जालझेल गरेर धर्म परिवर्तन गरी हिन्दु बनाउने प्रयास असफल भए पछि त्यही राजपुत हिन्दुहरूले मगर राजाको माइलो छोरा मेझा खानलाई हिन्दू बनाउन सफल भयो । हिन्दु भए वापत मेझा खानलाई खानझा खान जस्तै राजा बनाईने भनेर फकाइयो । मगर राजाको माइलो छोरा  मेझा खान मगर हिन्दु  भयो र उसैको सहयोग लिएर पाल्पाको सेन मगर राजालाई पनि हिन्दु बनाए पछि नेपालमा राजपुतहरूको जालजेल र षड्यन्त्र सुरू भयो र त्यहि दिन देखि नेपालको मगरहरूको निम्ति कालो दिनको सुरूवात भयो । भिरकोट र पाल्पामा भएको मगर समुदायलाई आफ्नो पुर्खा देखि मान्दै आएको मंगोल धर्म, सामानिजम धर्म, धामी झाँक्री धर्म र बौद्ध धर्म परिर्वतन गरी हिन्दु धर्म ग्रहण गरे वापत उक्त समुदायको कुनै पनि व्यक्ति जन्मदा, मर्दा र विवाह गर्दा तथा अन्य कुनै पनि कार्यक्रमहरू गर्नु परे सम्पूर्ण खर्च र लागत खर्च सरकारले व्यहोर्ने छ भनेर सरकारी अदलत आदेश जारी गरेको थियो । यसरी त्यहि समय देखि मगरहरू धर्म परिबर्तनगरि हिन्दु बन्ने क्रम सुरू भयो ।
यस पछि मेझाखानलाई राजपुतहरूले फकाएर १२ मगरात नुवाकोटको राजा बनाए । त्यस पछि क्रमस: जय खान, मिच्चा खान, बिचित्र खान, जगदेव खान र कुल मण्डन खान नुवाकोटको राजा भएका थिए । पछि कुलमण्डन खान शाहामा परिणत भयो । किन कि भारतलाई मंगोलीयाबाट साम्राज्य बिस्तार गर्ने क्रममा आएका त्यस समयका मुगोल, मंगोल सम्राट अकबरले अहिलेको भारत कब्जामा लिईसकेको थियो । तर, केही समय पछि दिल्लिको रज्यमा चाँही मुस्लिम धर्म मान्ने शाहा जाहान शासकले कब्जा गरेका थिए । त्यही शाहा जाहानले कुलमण्डन खानलाई दिएको उपाधी शाहा हो । यसरी राजपुतहरू प्रत्यक्ष रूपमा शाहा भयो । काठमाण्डौंको मुटु रानीपोखरी नजिकै भएको दुईवटा धरहराहरू (मस्जिद) शाहा शासकहरूले निर्माण गरेका हुन् । जो मुस्लिम धर्मावलम्बीहरूले प्रार्थाना गर्दा प्रयोग हुने मुस्लिम धर्मको प्रतिक, प्रार्थाना भवान हो । त्यसै कारणले गर्दा ज्यान बचाउनको लागि राजपुत हिन्दु ककसियसहरू नेपालको मगर राज्यमा खान भन्दै शरण मागे र त्यहाँका उद्धार, महान मगर खान राजाहरूले शरण दिए । त्यही राजपुत ककसियसहरूको भारी बोकेर संगै आएका हुन् अहिलेका बाहुन तागाधारीहरू र नेवारका केही तागाधारी ककसियस पुरोहितहरू । कुलमण्डन शाहका जेठा छोरा द्रव्य शाहा,  द्रव्य शाहाका जेठा छोरा राम शाहा, राम शाहाका छोरा नरभूपाल शाहाको दोस्रो रानी लम्जुङ राज्यको मगर राजाको छोरीसंगको विवाहबाट जन्मिएका छोरा हुन् पृथ्विनारायण शाहा । पृथ्विनारायण शाहा मगर समुदायका र हामी मंगोल समुदायका साइनोमा भान्जा हुन् ।
नरभुपाल शाहले मगर राज्य आफ्नो हातमा लिनको लागि कुटिल चाल र सड्यन्त्र गर्ने मनसायले मगर राजकुमारी संग विवाह गर्नु भएको थियो । नरभुपाल शाहको पहिलो रानी गोरखाको घले राजकुमारी हुन् र दोश्रो विवाह पछि उनले आफ्नो छोरा पृथ्विनारायण शाहालाई १० बर्षको उमेर हुँदा बिक्रम सम्बत १७३२ मा भक्तपुरका राजा रणजित मल्लसंग विन्तिपत्र चढाएर भक्तपुरमा ५ बर्षको लागि अध्यन गराउन सफल भए । पृथ्विनारायण शाहलाई भक्तपुरमा पठाउनको मुख्य कारण मल्ल राजाहरूको आन्तरिक अवस्था बुझ्नको लागि थियो भनेर धेरै इतिहास विद्धहरूले पुष्टि गरेकाछन् । त्यसैले इष्टि ईण्डियाको अंग्रेजहरूसंगको मिलोमतोमा काठमाण्डौ, भक्तपुर र पाटन लडाईमा जिते । त्यसरी लडाई जित्नुको मुख्य कारण अंग्रेजहरूले पृथ्विनारायण शाहलाई २१ जना लडाइ र नीतिमा अनुभवी अंग्रेज सल्लाहकारहरू पठाएका थिए । १७६६ जना लडाईका धेरै अनुभवी अंग्रेज सेनाहरूको साथमा त्यस समयका विभिन्न अत्याधुनिक हात हतियार सहित २८ वटा शक्तिशाली तोप (Muskets) हरूपनि पठाएका थिए । त्यस लडाईमा जति पनि नागरिकहरू पृथ्विनारायण शाह र अंग्रेजहरूले मारे, बाँचेकाहरूको पनि नाक र ओठ काटि दिए । त्यस समय भएको लडाइमा दुई तिहाई नागरिकहरूको हत्या भएको थियो ।
अंग्रेजहरूले नेपालको बारेमा जति पनि इतिहास लेखेका छन् यिनै २१ जना अंग्रेज सल्लाहकारहरूको प्रत्यक्ष वा अप्रत्यक्ष सहयोगबाट लेखिएका हुनाले नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायका सन्तानहरूलाई बदमास इतिहासकारहरूले डाँडा पारीबाट र डाँडा वारीबाट आएकाहरू हुन् भनिरहेका छन् । जस्तै कहिले चिनबाट आएको, कहिले मंगोलीयाबाट आएको, कहिले तिब्बतबाट आएको, कहिले भारतबाट आएको, कहिले भुटानबाट आएको भनेर भनिरहेका छन् । जब कि नेपालका मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायले आफ्नो पुरानो मंगोलको इतिहासलाई अध्यन तथा अनुसन्धान गर्दा थाहा हुन्छ कि सामानिजम धर्म, युमासम धर्म, बोन धर्म, किराँत धर्म, मंगोल धर्म आज भन्दा झण्डै २८ सय बर्ष अगाडि महादेव र महादेवको प्राकृतिक मृत्यु पछि रानी सुम्निमाले आफ्नो पुरानो धर्म ति देशहरूमा फैलाएको थियो । बुद्ध धर्म छैठौं शताब्दीको मध्ये तिर नेपालको राजा अंशु बर्मा (हंस बल) को छोरी राजकुमारी भृकुटीको विवाह तिब्बतको ३३औं राजा सोङचाङ गोम्पोसंग भए पछि भृकुटी र सोङचाङ गोम्पोको दोस्रो रानी चिनको राजकुमारी वेन चेङद्वारा तिब्बतमा र चिनमा बौद्ध धर्म प्रचार-प्रशार गरे पछि तिब्बतमा बौद्ध धर्मको सुरूवात भएको हो । तिब्बतमा बुद्धिजम धर्म सुरूवात हुनको गर्ने प्रमुख व्यक्ति नेपालका तामाङ धर्म गुरू श्री गुरू रिम्पोछे (पदमा संभव)  हुन् । गुरू रिम्पोछे (पद्मा संभव) नेपालको तामाङ राजाको छोरा पनि हुन् र धर्म गुरू पनि हुन् । यस अर्थमा नेपालका मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायले बुझ्नुपर्छ आफ्नो पुर्खाहरूले आफ्नो धर्म संस्कृति अन्य देशहरूमा (भुटान र मंगोलीयामा) पनि फैलाएको रहेछ । नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदाय तिब्बत र मंगोलियाबाट आएको होइन । नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदाय डाँडावारीबाट आएको  र डाँडापारीबाट आएको भन्नेहरू चाँही  नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायको भलो नचिताउने तागाधारी बाहुनका पुरोहितहरूले हिन्दु राजपुतहरूबाट सिकेको चलाखिपूर्ण राजनीतिक सड्यन्त्र हो । यस्ता बदमासपूर्ण सड्यन्त्रहरू नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायको राजनीतिक वा सामाजीक आन्दोलनमा लागेका व्यक्तिहरूले बुझ्नुपर्छ ।
नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायको राजनीतिक वा सामाजीक आन्दोलनमा लागेका व्यक्तिहरूले पनि तिनै तागाधारी बाहुन पुरोहितहरूले लेखेको इतिहास पढेका छन् । तागाधारी बाहुन पुरोहितहरूले तीनसय बर्ष अघि लेखेको दस्तावेजहरूलाई नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायले आफ्नो इतिहास भनेर पढिरहेका छन् । नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायका सन्तानहरूले आफ्नो इतिहास के हो बुझ्नुपर्छ पर्छ । गहिरिएर अध्यन गर्नुपर्छ । आफ्नो समुदायको भलो नचिताउनेहरूले लेखेको इतिहासलाई सच्याउनु पर्छ, बुझ्नुपर्छ, बुझाउनुपर्छ । नेपालको मंगोल समुदाय यही माटोको मूलवासीको सन्तान हो भन्ने बुझ्नुपर्छ ।
नेपालको मंगोल समुदायले आफ्नो इतिहास प्रष्ट संग नबुझेकै कारणले तमाङ्गले तमाङ्ग नभन्ने, तमुले तमु नभन्ने, मगरले मगर नभन्ने, लिम्बूले लिम्बू नभन्ने, राईले पनि राई नभन्ने गरेका हुन् । नेपालको मंगोल समुदायका अग्रजहरूले जहिले पनि स्वाँगे भाईको थर बोकेर स्वाँगे भाईको इतिहासहरू मात्र खोज्ने काम गरिरहेकाछन् । नेपालको मंगोल समुदायले आफ्नो समुदायको खोज्नु पर्ने मुख्य इतिहास खोज्ने जमर्को कहिल्यै गरेको छैन । यसै कारण नेपालको मंगोल समुदाय सधै नै बाहुन, क्षेत्री र तागाधारी हिन्दु पुरोहितहरूको राजनीतिक बिचारको हतियार बनिरहेकाछन् । नेपालको मंगोल समुदायका राजनीतिक र सामाजीक मुक्ति आन्दोलनमा लाग्ने अग्रजहरूको कमिकमजोरी पनि उनीहरूले राम्रैसंग थाहा पाइसकेका छन् ।
यसरी खोज र अनुसन्धान गर्ने हो भने नेपालको मंगोल समुदायलाई राम्रैसंग थाहा हुन्छ । नेपालको लिखित इतिहास अनुसार आकाश भैरब भनेको नेपालको पहिलो मंगोल मूलबासी (किराँतीहरूको) राजा यलम्बरको मुर्ति हो भन्ने थाहा हुन्छ । नेपालको मंगोल समुदायले आफ्नो समाजलाई राम्रो र प्रष्टसंग बुझाउन सक्नुपर्छ । नेपालको मंगोल समुदायले आकाश भैरवको मुर्तिलाई बर्षमा एक पटक होइन कम्तिमा पनि १२ पटक पुज्नुपर्छ, सम्झिनु पर्छ । अर्को कलिको मुर्ति जुन किराँतेश्वर (पशुपति नाथको मन्दिरमा अवस्थित छ । कलिको मुर्ति तमाङ राजा हाङसा बल तमाङ (अंशु बर्मा) को मुर्ति हो । अंशु बर्माको मुर्ति (कली) लाई पनि नेपालको मंगोल समुदायका सन्तानहरूले बर्षमा १२ पटक पुज्नुपर्छ, सम्झिनु पर्छ ।  यो पनि नेपालको मंगोल समुदायका सन्तानहरूको पुर्खाको पहिचान हो । पशुपतिनाथको मन्दिर अर्थात किराँतेश्वर भनेको महादेव राजा (पारूहाङ) को दरबार हो र चिहान पनि हो । किराँतेश्वर अर्थात पशुपतिनाथको मन्दिरलाई नेपालको मंगोल समुदायका सन्तानहरूले मंगोल समुदायको धार्मिक विधी अनुसार आफ्नो धर्म गुरूहरूको इच्छा अनुसार पुज्नको निम्ति र आफ्नो पुर्खाहरूलाई संसार भर चिनाउनको निम्ति सरकारसंग वार्ता गरेर सम्पूर्ण धर्म मान्ने जो कोहीलाई पनि सजिलैसँग  पुजा गर्नेव्यवस्था गर्नु पर्छ भनेर सरकारलाई बुझाउनु सक्नुपर्छ । आवश्यक भए हाम्रा राजनीतिक अग्रजहरूले मन, मस्तिष्क र मुखबाट आवाज उठाउनु पर्छ । किराँतेश्वर अर्थात पशुपतिनाथ मन्दिर नजिकै वनकालीको जङ्गलमा अहिले पनि किराँती समुदायको चिहान छ । अहिले पनि  किराँती समुदायका राई, लिम्बु, सुनुवार र याख्खाहरूलाई मरे पछि त्यही ठाँउमा लगेर गाड्ने चलन छ ।
नेपालमा जति पनि देवी  देउताका मुर्तिहरू छन् ती सबै नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायका पुर्खाहरूको मुर्ति हुन् र जति पनि पुरानो मन्दिरहरु छन् ती सबै नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायका पुर्खाहरूको चिहान र दरबार हुन् । यो कुरा नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायले बुझ्नु पर्छ र आफ्नो समुदायलाई बुझाउनु सक्नु पर्छ । भगवान बुद्ध २६३९ बर्ष अघि मंगोल कुलमा जन्मिएका हुन् । बुद्धको विवाह उनको मामाको छोरी यशोधारा सँग भएको थियो । मामा फुपुको छोरा छोरीसंग विवाह गर्ने संस्कार अझै पनि मंगोल समुदायहमा विद्धमान छ । स्वयम्भु र बौद्ध स्तुपा संसरकै सबै भन्दा ठूलो र पुरानो स्तुपा हो । यी स्तुपाहरू पनि मंगोल मूलवासी समुदायका पुर्खाहरूले नै बनाएका हुन् ।  स्वयम्भूको अर्थ मंगोल समुदायको मातृभाषामा आकाश भनेको हो । आकाश मान्ने धर्म भनेका मंगोलको धर्म हो । यस कारण नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायका राजनीतिक तथा सामाजिक आन्दोलनमा लागेका अग्रजहरूले नेपाल र नेपालको मंगोल समुदायको विकासको राजनीति गर्दा विकासको राजनीति गर्नु पर्छ, विचारको राजनीति गर्नु हुदैन । राजनीति भनेको यो संसारमा मानिसको अस्तित्व रहुन्जेल सम्म राजनीति रहीरहन्छ । त्यस कारण विचारको राजनीति भनेको त विदेशीले विदेशमा गएर राजनीतिक सत्ता आफ्नो हातमा पार्न र त्यो देशका नागरीकहरूलाई सकेसम्म आफ्नो स्वार्थ अनुकुल उपयोग गर्ने सिद्धान्तलाई विचारको राजनीति भनिन्छ ।
नेपालमा नेपालकै भलो नचाहाने राजपुत, बाहुन र क्षेत्री समुदायका केही हिन्दु तागाधारी पुरोहितहरूले गर्ने राजनीति बिचारको राजनीति हो । यिनीहरूले कहिल्यै पनि विकासको राजनीति गर्न सक्दैन । यिनीहरूले विकासको राजनीति गर्नै जान्दैनन् । किन कि यो देश नेपाल उनीहरूको आफ्नो प्यारो माटो होइन ।  यहि कारण भारत सँग जोडिएका नेपाल भारतका सिमानाहरू खुल्ला राखेका हुन् । नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायका अग्रजहरूले मन, मस्तिष्क र मुखबाट नेपालको बिकासको राजनीति गर्नु पर्छ । राजनीति विज्ञान (Science) होइन, राजनीति भनेको कला (Art) हो । त्यसैले नेपालको मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायाले आफ्नो समाज र देश बनाउनको निम्ति बिदेशीले लेखेको, विदेशी बिचार भएको राजनीतिक किताब पढेर गर्ने राजनीतिले विदेशिलाई  फाइदा हुन्छ भन्ने कुरा बुझ्नुपर्छ । नेपालका मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायका राजनीतिक क्षेत्रमा सक्रिय रहेका अग्रजहरूले विकाशको राजनीति गर्नु पर्छ । नेपालका मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायका अग्रजहरू सवैले सधै नै आफ्नो नामको पछाडि तमाङ्ग, तमु, गुरूङ, मगर, राई, लिम्बू, थारू लेख्ने गर्नुपर्छ । यसो गरे मात्र तमाङ्ग राजनीति गर्ने तमाङ्ग अग्रजहरूलाई तमाङ्गहरूले साथ दिन्छ । तमु (गुरूङ) हरूलाई तमुहरूले साथ दिन्छ । मगरहरूलाई मगरहरूले साथ दिन्छ । राईहरूलाई राईहरूले साथ दिन्छ । लिम्बूहरूलाई लिम्बूहरूले साथ दिन्छ र थारूहरूलाई थारूहरूले साथ दिन्छ ।
नेपालका मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायका दुःख पाएका र गरिब तमाङ्गहरूले मात्र तमाङ्ग भन्ने धनी भए पछि लामा, मोक्तान, योञ्जन, घिसिङ्ग, दोङ्ग लगायत १६० किसिमको स्वाँगे भाईहरूको थर झुण्डाएर हिड्ने गरेकाछन् । यसरी हिड्ने गरेकाहरूले गर्ने गरेको क्रियाकलापहरूले तमाङ्ग समाजको होइन, सिंगो मंगोल समुदायको सन्तानहरूको भलो नचिताउनेहरूको शुभचिन्तक र प्यारो भैरहेको हुन्छ । यस अर्थमा तमाङ्गहरू १६० कित्तामा विभाजित हुन्छ र यसरी विभाजन हुँदा तमाङ्गहरू सधै एक आपसमा स्वाँगे भाईको लडाई लडेर बस्नु पर्ने अवस्थाको समाजमा सृजना भएको छ । अहिले पनि यहि भईरहेको छ । तमाङ अग्रजहरूले साँच्चीकै मन, मस्तिष्क र मुखबाट तमाङ्गहरूको भलो र उन्नती चाहन्छ भने तमाङ्ग समुदायका राजनीतिक आन्दोलनमा रहेका अग्रजहरूले आफ्नो नामको पछाडि गर्वको साथ तमाङ्ग लेख्नु पर्छ । तमाङ्गहरू एकठाउँमा आए जस्तै तमु (गुरूङ्ग), मगर, थारू, राई, लिम्बु समुदायका राजनीतिक क्षेत्रमा रहेका अग्रजहरूले पनि आफ्नो समुदायको भलो र उन्नतिको लागि आफ्नो नामको पछाडि आफ्नो समुदायको मुल थर गर्वका साथ लेख्ने गर्नु पर्छ ।
नेपालका मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायका राजनीतिक तथा समाजीक मुक्ति आन्दोलनमा लागेका अग्रजहरूले आफ्नो मन र मस्तिष्कबाट आफ्नो नामको पछाडि मूल थर लेख्ने गरेमा धेरैमा पाँच बर्षको अबधि भित्रै नेपालका मूलवासी मंगोल समुदायका सन्तानहरू एक भएर हातमा हात र  काँधमा काँध मिलाएर एक अर्कालाई  समस्या र  दु:ख परेको बेलामा सहयोग आदानप्रदान गर्न सक्ने भावनात्मक वातावरणको सृजना हुन्छ । धनी मगरले गरिब मगरहरूलाई सहयोग गर्नेछ भने धनी तमाङ्गहरूले पनि गरिब तमाङ्गहरू लाई सहयोग गर्नेछ । धनी गुरूङ्गहरूले गरिब गुरुङ्गहरूलाई सहयोग गर्नेछ भने धनी लिम्बुहरूले पनि गरिब लिम्बुहरूलाई सहयोग गर्नेछ । धनी राईहरूले गरिब राईहरूलाई सहयोग गर्नेछ भने धनी थारूहरूले पनि गरिब थारूहरूलाई सहयोग गर्नेछ । गरिब थारूहरूको सन्तानले पनि भोली फूल टिप्ने समयमा राजनीतिक वा सामाजीक मुक्ति आन्दोलनमा लागेका थारू समुदायको अग्रजहरूलाई फूल फुलाउन र फूल टिप्नमा सहयोग गर्नेछ । यसरी सम्पूर्ण मंगोल समुदायका सन्तानहरू फूल जस्तै फुल्नु पर्छ, फुल्न सिक्नु पर्छ र फुल्न सिकाउनु पर्छ ।
यसरी तमाङ, तमु, मगर, राई, लिम्बु, थारू र अन्य मंगोल समुदायको फूलहरू एकठाउँमा जम्मा गरेर सुन्दर फूलको गुच्छा निर्माण हुनेछ । अब  नेपालका मंगोल समुदायले फूलको गुच्छा बनाउन सिक्नु पर्छ र सिकाउनु पर्छ । यो सुन्दर फूलको गुच्छालाई सबै फूलका मालीहरूले भोलीका दिनमा सही ठाउँमा नै राख्नेछ र सही ठाउँमा नै सजाएर राख्नेछ । फूलको गुच्छा राख्नु पर्ने ठाउँमा नै राख्नेछ । यसमा नेपालका सबै मंगोल समुदायको सन्तानहरू ढुक्क भए हुन्छ । आफ्नो सन्तानहरूलाई सधै विश्वास गरौं, सधै सहयोग गरौं, दुःखमा भएका दुखित र सुखद अवस्थामा रहेका नेपालका मूलबासी मगोल समुदायका सन्तानहरू सधै सधैको लागि एक भएर बाँच्ने गरौ ।

References:

स्रोत नं. 1

THE HISTORICAL PERIOD
Time of Mahabharata
The first Kirat king who ruled central Nepal was Banashur. His kingdom was conquered by a king whose name was Bhuktaman of Gopal dynasty.

स्रोत नं. 2

32 Kirat Kings who ruled in Kathmandu Valley[edit]

(According to Gopalavamsavali, p. 26) 1. King Shree Yelamba – 90 years/१। राजा श्री एलाम्बा – ९० वर्ष, 2. King Shree Palamba – 81 years/राजा श्री पलाम्बा- ८१ वर्ष, 3. King Shree Melam – 89 years/राजा श्री मेलं – ८९ वर्ष, 4. King Shree Changming – 42 years/राजा श्री चंमिं – ४२ वर्ष, 5. King Shree Dhakang – 37 years/राजा श्री धस्कं – ३७ वर्ष, 6. King Shree Walangcha – 31 years 6 months/राजा श्री वलंच – ३१ वर्ष ६ महिना, 7. King Shree Jite Dasti – 40 years 8 months/राजा श्री जिते दस्ति – ४० वर्ष ८ महिना, 8. King Shree Hoorma – 50 years/राजा श्री हुरमा – ५० वर्ष, 9. King Shree Tooske – 41 years 8 months/राजा श्री तुस्के – ४१ वर्ष ८ महिना, 10. King Shree Prasaphung – 38 years 6 months/राजा श्री प्रसफुं – ३८ वर्ष ६ महिना, 11. King Shree Pawa: – 46 years/राजा श्री पवः – ४६ वर्ष, 12. King Shree Daasti – 40 years/राजा श्री दास्ती – ४० वर्ष, 13. King Shree Chamba – 71 years/राजा श्री चम्ब – ७१ वर्ष, 14. King Shree Stungko – 54 years/राजा श्री स्तुङको – ५४ वर्ष, 15. King Shree Swananda – 40 years 6 months/राजा श्री स्वनन्द – ४० वर्ष ६ महिना, 16. King Shree Phukong – 58 years/राजा श्री फुकों – ५८ वर्ष, 17. King Shree Singhu – 49 years 6 months/राजा श्री शिंघु – ४९ वर्ष ६ महिना, 18. King Shree Joolam – 73 years 3 months/राजा श्री जुलम् – ७३ वर्ष ३ महिना, 19. King Shree Lookang – 40 years/राजा श्री लुकं – ४० वर्ष, 20. King Shree Thoram – 71 years/राजा श्री थोरम् – ७१ वर्ष, 21. King Shree Angsu Barmma – 73 years 6 months/राजा श्री अंशु वर्म्म – ७३ वर्ष ६ महिना, 22. King Shree Thuko – 83 years/राजा श्री थुको – ८३ वर्ष, 23. King Shree Gunjong – 72 years 7 months/राजा श्री गुंजं ७२ वर्ष ७ महिना, 24. King Shree Pushka – 81 years/राजा श्री पुस्क – ८१ वर्ष, 25. King Shree Tyapamee – 54 years/राजा श्री त्यपमि – ५४ वर्ष, 26. King Shree Moogmam – 58 years/राजा श्री मुगमम् – ५८ वर्ष, 27. King Shree Shasaru – 63 years/राजा श्री शसरू – ६३ वर्ष, 28. King Shree Goongoong – 74 years/राजा श्री गंणं – ७४ वर्ष, 29. King Shree Khimbung – 76 years/राजा श्री खिम्बुं – ७६ वर्ष, 30. King Shree Girijung – 81 years/राजा श्री गिरीजं – ८१ वर्ष, 31.King Shree Khurangja – 78 years/राजा श्री खुरांज – ७८ वर्ष, 32. King Shree khigu – 58 years/राजा श्री खिगु – ८५ वर्ष

स्रोत नं. 3

The Kirat folk-lore mentions that when Krishna 2. came to know about the establishment of a Kirat rule in central Nepal, he sent a strong force of the Yadava tribe under the command of Bhuktaman to conquer the kingdom of Banashur. According to Krishna’s instructions, Bhuktaman attacked Banashur, killed him and established his new kingdom. Thus the kings of this
15 Prachin Bharat ka Rajnitic aur Sanskritik Itihas by Rati Bhanu Singh Nahar, page 231
16 The History of Kumao by Rahul Sanskrityayan, page 20
17 Journal of Tribhuwan University, Nepal 1964. The Origin of Thakuri by I.S.Chemjong, page 55
5
Yadava dynasty ruled central Nepal for eight generations. Their capital was at Tistung situated to the west of the Kathmandu Valley. But during the time of king Bhuvansingh of the same dynasty, a Kirat king of eastern Nepal18 whose name was Yalamba, attacked him and slew him in the battle. The jurisdiction of Central Nepal in those days was from river Trisuli in the west to river Tamba Koshi in the east and from Chitlang in the south to the snow line mountain ranges in the north. When Yalamba, the Kirat king conquered Central Nepal, his kingdom extended from river Tista of Bhutan to river Trisuli in the west. The capital town of the Kirat king Yalamba was Yalung in the east; but when he conquered Central Nepal he shifted his capital from Yalung to Thankot. Some of the European scholars have called Yalung or Yelung as the first Kirat king who conquered Central Nepal. They seem to have made a mistake in writing the name of his residence as the king’s name. After a successful reign of ninety years, King Yalamba died and his son Palamba succeeded him. He built a town near Thankot and called it Suprabha and gave himself the title of Kiratashur19 (Kiratishur).

स्रोत नं. 4

It is also believed in Nepal that during the reign of this Kirat Jitedasti, Gautam Buddha also visited Nepal and preached his new faith to the people of the Nepal valley. He was successful in making as many as 1350 disciples among which Sariputta, Moudgalyana and Ananda were famous. 25

स्रोत नं. 5

 there was a great Queen who supremely reigned over Shin-yuk and was known as Su-yen-no-su-nu-Hangma. One day she ordered a congregation of all her military officers and ordered the consolidation of her empire by a series of invasions in the east, west, north and south and asked them to rule the invaded districts and spread the faith of Yumaism or the worship of the most powerful spirit, Yuma Sam among the conquered subjects. Thus a successful series of invasions in all four direction of the Shin-yuk country was initiated.

स्रोत नं. 6

The upper Bijaypur town remained capital of Limbuwan and Morong upto 1774 AD. It was founded by Kirat King Bijay Narayan Rai of Sanglaing family in 1584 AD. It was captured by another Kirat King Lo Hang Sen of Shan Mokwan dynasty in 1609 AD. His descendents ruled it for seven generations. In 1769 AD, Dewan Buddhi Karna Rai, the chief minister of Bijaypur succeeded King Kama Datta Sen and ruled Morong State from 1769 to 1773 AD.

स्रोत नं. 7

when Hindu missionaries approached the Chief of Bhirkot, who was of Khan family, for conversion, he refused them and remained a pure Magar King. His name was Khan Chha Khan which means the King’s Son King. The Hindu missionaries then approached the second prince whose name was Mechha Khan or the youngest son king. The missionaries assured that he would also be a king like his elder brother if he would accept Hinduism. So, he gave his consent to them to convert him into Hinduism. Thus, the second prince of Bhirkot also became a Hindu Rajput and his religious priests made him the King of Nuwakot of Barah Mangrat. He was succeeded by Jaya Khan, Micha Khan, Bichitra Khan, Jagdeo Khan and Kulmandan Khan. From the time of this king, he changed his family title from Khan to Shah which carries the same meaning as king. The descendants of King Khanchha Khan of Bhirkot, though refused to accept Hinduism and agreed to abide by their own tribal culture, yet he with all his subjects were so much influenced by Hinduism that all the Magar tribes ceased to follow the teaching of their own tribal priest and followed the doctrine of Hindu priests with respect to birth, marriage and death ceremonies and those officials of the courts of Shan Kings and Khan Kings of Palpa and Bhirkot who could afford for conversion into Hinduism became Hindu Rajputs and called themselves Kshatris. In this way, the Magar Kings and their officials were converted into Hindu civilization.144 Yet in the middle of 18th century AD.

स्रोत नं. 8

During this period, Senje Lungma or Kathmandu Valley was under the rule of a Kirat King called Hangsu Deva who ruled from the fortress at Koli78 or Kori Drang. Kirat MSS indicates that while he led a self indulgent life and spent a major part of his time hunting, he reigned a peaceful kingdom with happy subjects and had embraced Hinduism although he did not attach much significance to religious instructions. King Hangsu Deva had a council of ten ministers who were called Karthaks, his chief minister Karthak Wookdey was himself a Buddhist.

स्रोत नं. 9

The Licchavi Princess Bhrikuti Devi, known to Tibetans as Bal-mo-bza’ Khri-btsun, Bhelsa Tritsun or, simply, Khri bTsun, is traditionally considered to have been the first wife of the earliest emperor …

स्रोत नं. 10

right_Bhrikuti_Devi_Songtsan_Gampo_and_Wen_Cheng_Gyantse
Songtsän Gampo (centre) Princess Wencheng (right) and Bhrikuti Devi of Nepal (left)

स्रोत नं. 11

मङग/माङगर/मगर समुदायले बुझनु पर्ने कुरा

विश्वमा परापुर्वकाल मा मानिसको तिनवटा रंगका महाजाति हरु थिए! निग्रो, कौकसस र मंगोलियन एसियाको मध्ये भागमा मंगोल बंशको मानिसहरुको बसोबास थियो ! मानब विकास को साथै राष्ट्र निर्माणको क्रममा चीनको उत्तर मा मंगोलिया भन्ने देश आज पनि बिधमान छ भने २००० बर्ष पहिले भारत को विहार मा मगध भन्ने देश थियो! मंगोलजति हरू आजभन्दा लगभग ३५००-४००० बर्ष अगाडि पशुपालन गर्दै दक्षिणी भागतिर सार्दै आएका हुन। पामिर को पाठर बाट तिब्बत को उत्तरी भाग सम्म ठुलो भु-पर्लय भए को थियो भन्ने कुरा चिनिया बिर्तान्तमा उल्लेख गरेको पाईन्छ।यस्तो भु-पर्लय आज भन्दा लगभग ४००० बर्ष अगाडि भएको हुनुपर्छ भन्ने कुरा भु-गर्वबिदहरू बतउछन। यस्तो बिपत्ती बाट बाँच्न को लागि त्यस क्षेत्र र आसपास का मंगोलायी हरू द्क्षिणी भागतिर सर्दै आएका थिए भन्ने सहजै अनुमान गर्नसकिन्छ। संस्कर,सस्किर्ती समय परिस्थिती अनुसार परिवर्तन् हुने भएको ले यी मंगोलयी जतिहरूमा पनि परिवर्तन हुँदै आएको हुनुपर्द्छ। आजभन्दा २२-२५ सय बर्ष अगाडी जात जाति को कुनै लिखित अवशेष पाइदैन ती समयमा मगर लाई मगर भन्ने शब्द ले उच्चारण नगरि कविला, मंग्ग, सिथियन जस्ता नाम ले उच्चारण गरिन्थ्यो । जातिको अवशेष नहुदा धर्म ग्रन्थ को आधार लिनु पार्ने हुन्छ जस मध्य पनि सबै भन्दा पुरानो धर्म ग्रन्थ बुद्ध धर्म ग्रन्थ “त्रिपिटक” मा पनि पाली साहित्य लाई लिनु पर्नेहुन्छ। ती “मंग्ग” जाति लाई नै कोलियन(नाग्) पनि भन्ने गरिन्थ्यो यी कोलियन जाति एक-आपस मा मिलेर आनन्द ले बस्ने भएको ले “मंग्ग” भनिए को हुनु पर्द्छ। अझै पनि मगर भाषा मा “मंग्न” शब्द को प्रयोग भएको पाईन्छ। जस्तो “मंग्नले” अर्थात आनन्द छ भन्ने हुन्छ, भने पाली भाषा म “मुंद” हुन्छ अर्थात आनन्द ! यी शब्द उच्चारण मा मेल हुन जान्छ। “मंग्ग” हरू ले राज्य गर्ने भएकोले “मगध” भनिए को हो। मंग्ग हरू ले बोल्ने भाषा नै पाली भाषा हो जसलाई मगधी भाषा पनि भनिन्छ। उक्त पाली (मगधि) भाषा र मगर ले बोल्ने भाषा ४०-४५ प्रतिशत मिल्न जान्छ। जस्तो- इमं, देम, पुजेम (मगर भाषामा पुजट्न), वक्क, मोचा, सुत्त (मगर भाषामा सुटटा) आनित (मगर भाषामा यानिह्त), आस्स (मगर भाषामा आस्कe), कुतो (मगर भाषामा कुटौ) इत्यादी !

त्यति बेला मगध को राजधानी लाई “पटलीपूत्र” भनेर भनिन्थ्यो यद्द्यपी अझै पनि मगर जाति मा पतली मगर थर रहेको पाइन्छ भने मगधी लाई “मौर्य” भन्ने गरिन्थ्यो भने मगर जाति को थर मारु, सारु, मायो,ल्हायो, मुरुङ्छन, मारुन्चन, मरु इत्यदी । “मंग्ग” कोलियन नाग हरू को पुर्खा लाई सूर्यबंशी थिए भन्ने कुरा पाली सहित्य मा उल्लेख गरेको पाईन्छ भने अझै पनि सूर्यबंशी मगरहरू छदैछन।

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वास्तवमा हाम्रो पुर्खाको इतिहास लाई खोज्ने हो भने धर्म ग्रन्थ लाई पल्टाउनै पार्ने हुन्छ । अझै पनि मगर जाति लाई बाराही पुत्र भन्ने गरिन्छ मगध का राजा बिम्बिसर का छोरा अजातसत्रु लाई बेदेहीपुत्र भन्ने गरिन्थ्यो पछी उहा आफै राजा भए पछी सबै नाग “मंग्ग” जाति लाई नै बेदेहीपुत्र हुन् भनेर घोषणा गरेको थियो भन्ने बौद्ध साहित्य मा पाइन्छ l त्यहि बेदेहिपुत्र शब्द अहिले सम्म आइपुग्दा बाराहीपुत्र बन्न पुगेको हो ! इशा को 7-8 औ शताब्ती मा पश्चिम कर्णाली को खस हरु को अभिलेख मा “मग्वर” पूर्वी राज्य छ भन्ने उल्लेख गरेको पाइन्छ! पछी मगर र खस हरु छाय्समिस भएर बसोबास गरेको ले मगर र खस हरु को जात मिल्न गएको हो ! जस्तै बुढाथोकी, क्याप्छाकी, थापा, बराल, कुवर इत्यादी ! यसरी मंग्ग-मगध-मंगोर-मगर बने को हुनु पर्छ।

बुद्ध धर्म अनुयायी यी मगधी (मगर्) हरूको राज्यमा शैवबादी हिन्दू ब्रह्म्न शंकराचर्य ले सन ७८८-८२० सम्ममा हजारौं मगधी भिक्षु हरू लाई खुलेआम हत्या गरेका थिए। बुद्ध धर्म अनुयायी मगधी (मगर)लाई लखेटे कतिपय तिनी हरू सँग अत्मासमर्पण गरेर हिन्दू भएर बसे । W.T.Wilkins….! पछि फेरि मुसल्मान हरू को आक्र्मण को शिकार पनि हुन गएको थियो। मुसल्मान को आक्रमण बाट बाँच्न को निम्मित्त सुँगुर पाल्न थालेका हुन यो मगधी मगर्हरूको चलाखिपन हुनुपर्छ। सुँगुर भएको ठाउँमा मुसल्मान जादैनन्न । दुरुन्चुङ आले मगर को कुलपुजा गर्दा कुलबखान गर्दा हामी मुसल्मान बैरी सँग “युज्जे” युद्ध गर्दा हाम्रो ठाउँ “सग्गलुङ, नग्ग्रलुङ” बाट लखेट्यो त्यस पछि उनिहरु बाट बाँच्न को लागि सुँगुर पल्न थालिउ सुँगुरको मासु खान थालिउ भन्दै कुल बक्नेले बक्ने गरेको सुन्न सक्छौ । मगधी भाषा “सग्ग”अर्थत सुन्दर वा स्वर्ग भने “लुङ” अर्थत मगर भाषा मा फाँट हुन्छ त्यस्तै “नगर” वा “नग्ग्र” शहर हुन्छ। यसरी आफ्नो सुन्दर स्वर्ग जस्तो ठाउँ बाट लखेटिएका मगधी (मगर) त्यस पछि को समय मा बुद्ध धर्म को बज्रयान आपनाए को हुनुपर्छ किन की मगर ले बज्रभैरव को पूजा गरेको पाईन्छ जस्तो की म्याग्दी को अर्जम भन्ने ठाउँमा बज्रभैरुङ भनेर पूजा गर्ने चलन रहेकोछ त्यहा को मगर हरू मा के विश्वास रहेकोछ भने उक्त बज्रभैरुङ थानमा पूजा गरियो भने च्ट्यङ (बज्र) लाग्दैन, असिना, पानी पर्दैन भन्ने विश्वास गरिन्छ l त्यस्तै गोर्खा को मनकामना मा पनि बज्रभैरव को पूजा गर्ने गरिन्छ । मनकामनामा रहेको बज्रभैरव को मुर्ती प्रत्येक १२ बर्षमा हुने स्वयम्भु पूजामा स्वयम्भुमा ल्याउने प्रचलन रहेको छ। स्मरण रहोस् स्वम्भु चैत्य २५०० बर्ष पुरानो चैत्य हो। यद्यापी मनकामनामा मगर् नै पुजरी रहेकोछ l बज्रभैरब भने को बोधिसत्व हुन । बुद्ध धर्म को बज्रयान शाखामा मन्त्रको धेरै प्रयोग गरिएको पाइन्छ। मगरहरू धामी झाक्री हुने प्रकिर्तीको पूजा गर्ने हुन भन्ने कुरा पनि जोडिन्छ मगरको धर्म पनि यहि हो की भन्ने गरेको पाईन्छ l धर्म को अर्थ “धारेति ती धम्म” प्रकिर्तिक रुपमा परिवर्तन् भएको स्वभाबलाई जान्नु वा धारण गर्नु धर्म हो अथवा प्रकिर्तिक रुपमा परिवर्तन हुने स्वभाब धर्म हो । उदाहरणको लागि आगोको स्वभाव भनेको जल्नु, जलाउनु, पोल्नु आदि हो ! यो कुनै पनि “जातपात, उच-निच, धनि-गरिब” आदिको ख्याल नगरी सबैलाई एकैनास जलाई दिन्छ, पोलिदिन्छ त्यसैले यो धर्म हो। भने पाप को अर्थ रिस, राग, क्रोध, लोभ, मोह, डाह उत्पन गर्नु जगाउनु नै पाप हो । पूजाको अर्थ सेवा गर्नु संरक्षण गर्नु हो, पूजा को अर्थ बिनाश गर्नु हत्या गर्नु होइन । नकी धर्म भनेको हिन्दू, बुद्धिस्ट, क्रिसटीयन, मुस्लिम नै हो यी भनेको त सम्प्रादाय मात्र हुन । धर्म सबै को एउटै हुन्छ त्यो हो प्रकिर्तिक रुपमा परिवर्तन् हुने स्वभाब । बुद्धले यहि प्रकिर्तिक रुपमा परिवर्तन हुने स्वभाब लाई जान्ने शिक्षा सिकाउनु भयो त्यसैले बुद्धको शिक्षा नै धर्म हो । मगर जातिको एतिहासिक एबम सास्कृतिक परम्परालाई अध्यन नगरी हिन्दु वा प्राकृतिक पुजक हौ भन्नु गलत हो l किन कि यी तर्कहरु मगरको एतिहासिक आधारमा आधारित छैनन् l मगर हिन्दु हुनको लागि बर्णश्रमको ब्यबस्थालाई स्विकारेको हुनु पर्छ ठुलो सानो जात भनेर छुटाएको हुनु पर्छ ! जुन मगर समाजमा पाइदैन l हिन्दुहरुले मानेको देवताहरुको मन्दिर मगरले बनाएको पाइदैन l समयको कालखण्डसंगै मगरले आफ्नो राज्य गुमाए पछी ब्रामणको प्रभुत्तोसंगै अन्तत: मगरले आफ्नो प्राचिन मौलिक धर्म बुद्ध धर्म बिस्तारै बिर्सदै गए l तर पनि मगर समाजमा ब्रामणहरुले आफ्नो पेट पाल्न कर्मकाण्ड पुरेत्याई बाहेक मगर समाजमा आफ्नो जरा गाड्न सकेन l मगरको परम्परागत सस्कृतिले पनि मगरहरु हिन्दु होइन भन्ने कुरा प्रष्ट हुन्छ l मगर प्राकृतिक पुजक हुन् भन्ने कुरामा मगर मात्र होइन सबै मानव जाति नै प्राकृतिक पुजक हुन् l पछि राज्यसत्ताले मगरहरूलाई जबर्जस्ती हिन्दुकरण गरिएको हो । हिन्दू राज्यसत्ताले मगरहरूलाई यति सम्म दम्मन गरेर राखेयो कि मगरले मगर भाषा बोल्यो बुद्ध धर्म मान्यो भने ४ पैसा जरिवान पनि लगाइयो l जसको करणले मगरहरूले भाषा, धर्मलाई आफू बच्नको लागि त्यग्नु पारेको थियो। मगरहरूलाई ४ पैसा दण्ड लगाइएको क्षेत्र बाग्लुङ, म्यग्दी, पर्वत र गुल्मी हो। Shamanism भनेको हिन्दू धर्म कै अंश हो किन की यसमा धेरै शिवको काहानी जोड्दिने गर्छ यी कुरालाई Shamanism research center Kathmandu, Nepal का संस्थापक मोहंन राइ पनि स्विकारछन ।

मानव बसोबास नभएको ठाउँमा जुन जाति पहिलो चोटि पुगेर बसोबास गर्छन् त्यस ठाउँको नाम पनि आफ्नै भाषामा राख्ने गर्छन् l नेपाल को अधिकांश नदि नाला, ठाउँहरूको नाम मगर भाषामा रहेको पाईन्छ । मगरको सास्कृतिक परम्परा बुद्ध धर्मसंग मेल रहेकोछ l जस्तो चण्डी पुजा, भगवान बुद्ध गृहत्याग गरेर जानु भए पछी उहाले आफ्नो कपाल जसलाई “चुडा” भनिन्छ काटेर फाल्नु हुदा उक्त कपाललाई देवताहरुले लगेर पुजा गर्थे भन्ने विश्वास मा नाग “मंग्ग” हरुले चुडा पुजा गरेका हुन् त्यहि चुडा पुजा भन्दा भन्दै चण्डीपुजा हुन गएको हो l पछी हिन्दु ब्रामणको प्रभाव बढे पछी सोहि चण्डी पुजालाई बलि पुजाको रुपमा परिवर्तन गरिएको हो l नाग “मंग्ग” हरुले बुद्ध भगवानलाई देउ- बडा भनेर पुजा गर्ने गरिन्थ्यो मगर भाषामा देउ को अर्थ देवता र बडा को अर्थ ठुलो भन्ने हुन्छ देवताहरुमा पनि सबै भन्दा ठुलो देवता भनेर पुजा गरेको पाइन्छ तर त्यहि पुजा लाई हिन्दुहरुले एउटा शक्ति पिठको रुपमा पशु बलि दिएर देउबाराही बनाए l अझै पनि मगरहरुको घरमा कमल फुल को बुट्टा कुद्दने चलन छ बुद्ध धर्ममा कमलको फुललाई शुभ चिन्हको रुपमा लिइन्छ भने बुद्ध धर्ममा भिक्षुहरुले भिक्षा मागेर जीवन यापन गर्नु पर्ने नियम भएकोले भिक्षु हुने परम्परा मगर समाजमा हराएर गएको भएता पनि इलामको बर्दुबतासे भन्ने गाउका समल मगरहरुले बर्षको एक पल्ट भिक्षुहरुको कठिन दानको समयमा भिक्षा माग्ने चलन अझै रहेकोछ l यी कुराहरुले पनि हामी मगरहरु बुद्ध धर्मको नजिक रहेका छौ l सम्बन्धको हिसाबले पनि बुद्ध भगवानको आमा महामायादेवी कोलियन नाग “मंग्ग” राजाका छोरी हुन् भने बुद्ध भगवानले आफ्नै मामाको छोरी यसोधरासंग बिहे गरेका थिए जुन मगर समाजमा अझै पनि आफ्नो मामाको छोरी बिहे गर्ने चलन छ!

मगरको शब्दिक अर्थ कोट्याउन खोजे को मात्रै हुँ यो मेरो अधयन मात्र हो पूर्ण रुप भने होइन। अझै अध्यन अनुसन्धान को जरुरी रहेकोछ।

अन्तिम मा भगवान बुद्धको शिक्षा सार्वजनिक असम्प्रादायीक शिक्षा हो l सबै मानव प्राणीको लागि हो सबैले बुद्ध शिक्षालाई पालना गरौ…!!! सबै को कल्याण होस्……..!!!!

भवतु सब्ब मंगलंग……..!!!!!!!

स्रोत नं. 12

Akash Bhairav

Akash Bhairab, Indra Chowk, Kathmandu
Akash Bhairab, Indra Chowk, Kathmandu

Akash Bhairab, Indra Chowk, Kathmandu

Akash Bhairav is of the different forms of Bhairava.

The head of the Aakash Bhairav was dug up several hundred years ago in Kathmandu. The head sits in a Hindu temple in Indrachok Kathmandu not far from Durbar Square. It is taken out once a year on the occasion of Indra Jatra Festival and is blessed by the Kumari — the living goddess who lives in the nearby Kumarichok. This ceremony is held in the month of August/September In the period of ceremony large number of prayers come to visit the Aakash bhairav. During the ceremony prayers offers peda (sweets made from milk), flowers, money and several others things.
The Akash Bhairab is said to be the kirati king yalamber himself.

स्रोत नं. 13

Charumati Stupa (Dhando Chaitya): History and Heritage

1915 Charumati Stupa
1915 Charumati Stupa

Nepal is a pious land blessed with many natural heritages, diverse terrains, rivers and diversity in terms of plants, animals and geography. Apart from these and many other proud histories, cultures, ethnic and religious diversities and heritages that are rare in any part of the world, Nepal and Nepalese people are always filled with great honor to share the land where Siddharth Gautam was born some 2600 years ago who achieved Enlightenment and became ‘The Buddha’ — the one who knows. Also known as Sakyamuni Buddha, Lord Buddha, Gautam Buddha, Tathagat, Arahat and many other supreme honoring names, the Enlightened One blessed the entire world with his teachings that are the surest path to lead worldly beings from darkness to light, freeing the chain of cravings and attachments and liberating from sorrow towards eternal bliss. Because of his timeless, ever applicable, logical and practical teachings, his disciples, devotees and followers are found increasingly spreading throughout the world. Even after more than 2500 years of Buddha’s period, his teachings and philosophy are still relevant and their importance is felt even higher in today’s world of wars, conflicts and chaos where enmity, hatred and unhappiness are prevalent. Even people following other religious ideologies in the world understand the Buddha as a symbol of peace, compassion and enlightenment. He has been honored as ‘The Light of Asia’ whose light, i.e. knowledge, is illuminating the entire world. Because of the universal implication and due to not being a sectarian philosophy but a universal philosophy, Buddhism is spreading its influence around the world. Countries like Nepal, India, China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, Korea, England, America and many European and even African countries are following and sustaining Buddhism with much honor. The UN also celebrates Vesak Day commemorating three sacred days related to Lord Buddha’s life, namely, the day of his birth, the day he achieved enlightenment and the day he attained ‘mahaparinirvana‘ all of which fell on a same day of Baisakh Purnima. Lord Buddha’s teachings of ‘Astangik marg’or the eightfold path is a basic and most important path to follow by every human being to be free from worldly sufferings.

2001 after reconstruction Charumati Stupa
2001 after reconstruction Charumati Stupa

            Since long ago, Lord Buddha’s devout followers have been paying their homage to their mentor, their Guru, their Lord by building big or small monuments, stupas and idols as a symbol to commemorate his blessed life and teachings. One of the greatest followers was Emperor Ashoka of Indian continent, prominent for reviving and spreading Buddhism some 300 years after the Buddha. Once a king involved in killing of thousands of people for the sake of expanding his material kingdom, he went to the refuge of the Buddha, the dhamma and the sangha and denounced violence. He was transformed from a power-seeking violent Emperor into a big devout and supporter of non-violence and tolerance. He not only promoted Buddhism and Buddhist sanghas in his kingdom but also sent Buddhist missionaries all over the continent where the dedicated monks, nuns and Buddhist leaders would explain Buddhism, inspire people to follow Buddhist path of peace, compassion and non-violence and also establish stupas or monuments with the relic of Lord Buddha that Emperor Ashoka excavated from four major monuments in order to spread them in 80,000 monuments and holy places around the world.

Emperor Ashoka also made a pilgrimage to Lumbini and Niglisagar of Nepal related to life of Buddha the proof of which is Ashoka pillar at Lumbini and other inscriptions found at these places. Emperor Ashoka is also believed to have made a pilgrimage to Kathmandu valley with one of his daughters, Princess Charumati. Princess Charumati married a Kshatriya (a local king) Devpal of Deo Patan (present Chabahil) and settled here. In her old age, she became a nun and started living in a vihara called Charumati Vihara with 500 nuns who followed her. Charumati was a prominent Buddhist woman who promoted Buddhism in this locality and inspired people in Buddhist way of life. She is believed to have built a stupa at Devpattan in order to pay homage to the Buddha. The stupa is located at the central Chabahil and during 2000-1AD renovation, a brick with inscription ‘Charumati thupa’ in Brahmi script [dating back to Ashoka period] and a dhammachakra [used first by Ashoka] was found from the base of the stupa that cleared all doubts and proved it to be the Charuamti Stupa. It is also known as Dhando Chaitya and Bhagwansthan by the locals.

This 2300 years old Charumati Stupa is located at the south-west of central Chabahil and is occupying around 8 ropeni area. Besides the main stupa, 19 small stupas dating back to 6thcentury Lichchhavi period and early Shah period are found around the premises. Similarly, centuries old idols of Kashyap, Akshovya, Ratnasambhav, Vairochan, Amoghsiddhi, Amitabh, Shadakshari, Amidev, Padhmasambhav, Manjushree, Lokeshwor, Vajrapani and the future Buddha Maitrya are found attached at the four sides of the main stupa and situated around the Charumati Stupa. At the southwest corner of the Stupa is a small temple of 9th century’s idol of Lokeshwor. There are 37 stone inscriptions belonging to different eras since 3rd Century AD. These all inscriptions, idols and stupas are our cultural heritages, our proud history and our national assets. They are not only religiously but also archeologically and historically important heritages that are preserving our proud history since many generations. Chabahil is hence a rich cultural site and with it comes the responsibility to the community of Chabahil too, besides Nepal Government and other concerned authorities, to preserve, protect and promote this holy shrine standing in our neighbourhood.

While talking about Charumati Stupa (Dhando Chaitya) at present time, one prominent name can’t be ignored whose contribution in preservation, conservation and promotion of this archeologically and religiously valuable historical shrine. He is Bhikkhu Tapassi Dhamma, a young monk and chief abbot of Charumati Buddha Vihara formerly known as Sri Ashoka Charumati Stupa Vihara standing at the western front of Charumati Stupa. A young monk to take refuge in Buddhism at the age of 13 in 1983 in Balambu, Kathmandu, Bhikkhu Tapassi Dhamma studied Buddhism in Sri Lanka for more than 10 years and returned Nepal in 1993 looking for Charumati Vihara and Charuamti Stupa by the order of his most Venerable teacher Kotugoda Dhammawasa Maha Nayak Thero of Sri Lanka. When young Tapassi came here, the stupa was in dilapidated situation. He was grieved to see the historical shrine in such a forlorn condition. He started looking after the premises and doing whatever he could at that time to protect and look after the stupa. In doing so, in 2000 AD, Bhikkhu Tapassi Dhamma observed the stupa’s upper part just above the dome having a crack that started growing bigger and bigger. The crack was causing the stupa vulnerable to crumble at any time. One of the causes of this risk was the vibration of land due to the adjacent busy road. Seeing the urgent need to renovate the stupa before something unfortunate happened to the ancient glory, Bhikkhu Tapassi Dhamma initiated forming groups, calling attention of the concerned authorities and Nepal Government. After getting permission and some help from Nepal Government and the archeological department he also received huge supports of various kinds from national/international devotees and well-wishers who were equally pained to see the stupa in great risk. With the support from local communities, stupa conservation committee, devotees and all the well-wishers, the stupa regenerated in a better look, wide, clean and walled up appearance. Now the stupa has a clean periphery and a peaceful environment. Whoever enters this periphery from the crowded and noisy road gets pleased to find them in the peaceful and open surrounding. Bhikkhu Tapassi Dhamma is such a person who is endeavoring so much to protect this place and promote it in national as well as international level. He is planning to make so many improvements in this holy shrine with the help of all the concerned individuals and communities.

Charumati Stupa is our ancient glory standing at the mid of Chabahil and telling silently the centuries old Buddhist history and preserving that old heritage within it. So we all must contribute to develop this holy area and not only preserve but also enhance its glory. Our cultural heritages are our assets, our faith, our identity and the history linked with us. We need to maintain their originality, enhance them and honor them while keeping them safe for the generations to come.

According to Bhikkhu Tapassi Dhamma, there are some urgent needs of Charumati Stupa heritage that has to be taken care of. It is seen that the excessive use of lime to paint the stupas by devotees (mostly Tibetans) is endangering the originality of Lichchhavi period stupas and also hiding and damaging stone inscriptions dating centuries back. It is required to protect them by stopping, or if not possible then minimizing, the use of lime in the central stupa and forbidding use of lime in small stone stupas Lichchhavi and Shah period. The mandalas and vedikas on the floor need to be made clearly observable. The enamel paintings in ancient Buddha idols, giving them the shape of Mahayana Tibetan style needs to be removed and restored to their original Nepali form. The lime collected around the stupa is covering and damaging the beauty of Newai architectural temples with copper 3 layered roofs and a bronze ‘gajur‘ attached at four directions of the main Charumati Stupa. Hence the use of lime on these metal architectures must be stopped.

These monuments are not getting as much care and attention from the concerned authorities and devotees as required. This stupa is more than 2300 years old, considered by the historians to be one of the oldest stupas of the valley, and yet even many people of this locality– including new migrants from outside the valley, new generations and even many old generations are unknown about its history and importance. A proper attention and action is needed in this matter from all. The effort of a person, a group, a community and many supporting devotees from their individual level doesn’t bring much result but combined efforts can do exemplary works, the example of which is the 2000/1 renovation of the stupa with the participation from the locals, Charumati Buddhist Mission Nepal, Nepal government and devotees around the world that transformed the dilapidated and endangered stupa into an attractive, clean and renewed one which is appreciated very much by devotees and others alike. So when you walk around the Charuamti Stupa next time, please do consider observing its assets, appreciate them, promote them and contribute in any ways you can  to spread its importance and to protect it from being harmed.

Finally I would like to thank Sri Chandra Vinayak and Sri Bhairab Nath Jatra Organizing Committee for publishing this pictorial Souvenir Book including the archeologically and historically important Jatras, Festivals, Places, and Temples etc available in ward no 7, Chabahil on the occasion of Sri Chandra Vinayak and Sri Bhairab Nath Jatra 2069. It is worth appreciating that this committee is protecting and promoting the cultural heritages of this area which are our proud history and a wonderful gift from our ancestors to the many generations before, during and after us. Records in black and white along with the pictures will make a history book in itself for present and future generations to know about our cultural assets which will definitely make them proud of their culture and will fuel in them the responsibility to preserve, appreciate, honor and promote our cultures. I sincerely thank the committee and wish them success in future endeavors too in continuing such wonderful works.

May Triple Gem of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha bless you all!

References:

  1. Ideas and information collected from Bhikkhu Tapassi Dhamma, Chief Abbot of Charumati Buddha Vihara, Founder-President of Charumati Buddhist Mission Nepal and Patron of Charuamti Stupa
  1. “2300 Years Old Historical Charumati Stupa (Analytical Research)” – Researched and written by Junu Basukal Ranjitekaar and published by Charumati Buddhist Mission Nepal

स्रोत नं. 14

How discriminatory was the first Muluki Ain against Dalits?

Talking on the radio program “Naya Nepal” on the BBC Nepali Service on 30 July, 2015, Jit bahadur (Darji) Gautam, a Dalit member of the Constituent Assembly representing the second largest party CPN-UML said:

We all regard the Muluki Ain (General Code) of 1854 as the first law of Nepal….This law encouraged casteism…restricted the entry of (Dalits) in all sectors of the state, did not allow them to walk on the street, eat good food…

Click here to listen to the interview:

Is the Muluki Ain-1854 the first law of Nepal?

Muluki Ain is not the first law of Nepal. But it is the first among the available written laws of Nepal.

Did the Muluki Ain promote casteism [untouchability]?

Untouchability based on casteism was practiced in Nepali society even before the promulgation of the General Code-1854. This code recognized and legalized untouchability based on casteism.

The code legalized the caste-based social hierarchy.

The code categorized people into five major groups: Tagadhari (those wearing the sacred thread called Janai across their torso), Masinay Matuwali (enslavable liquor drinkers), Namasine Matuwali (unenslavable liquor drinkers), Pani Nachalne Chhoichhito Halnu Naparne (Impure but touchables including foreigners, Muslims and Christians also fall under this category), and Pani Nachalne Chhoi Chhito Halnu Parne (Impure and Untouchable, upon touching whom one needed to purify themselves by sprinkling gold-dipped water).

According to the code, individuals of different caste groups were subjected to different punishments for the same crime. Based on this fact, the claim that the code encouraged casteism (untouchability) is true.

Here are some examples which further show as to how hostile the code was against the Dalits and how it encouraged untouchability:

If an Upadhyaya Brahman (Brahman of highest status) ejaculated his semen in the mouth of someone else’s wife or made her swallow his semen ejaculated elsewhere, the punishment for him would vary based on the caste of the victim woman.
Caste of the victim Fine
Upadhyaya Brahman Rs 500
Rajput, Jaisi Rs 450
Sacred thread wearer chhetri Rs 400
Non-enslavable liquor drinker Rs 250
Enslavable liquor drinker Rs 200
Impure but touchable Rs 150
Impure and untouchable (Achhut) Rs 100

If a man from the lowest caste group i.e. Impure and Untouchable, ejaculated semen in the mouth of the wife of someone from higher caste than his or made her swallow his semen ejaculated elsewhere, the man is subjected to enslavement. But if the victim is also from impure and untouchable caste, then the perpetrator is subjected to a fine of Rs 100. (pg 262)

The code has provisioned separate punishments for those who spit in the mouth of another person, based on the caste of the victims and the perpetrators. Here are some examples of such provisions:

If a Brahman spits in the mouth of a person from Rajput (sacred thread wearing) caste, he is subjected to a fine of Rs 5. If the Brahman perpetrator’s victims are from Non-enslavable Liquor Drinker caste and Enslavable Liquor Drinker caste, then the fine is Rs 2 and Re 1 respectively. But if the victim is from Impure and Untouchable caste, then the code states that the Brahman perpetrator is subjected to punishment (there is no mention of fine).
If a Rajput spits in the mouth of a person from higher caste, the perpetrator is subjected to a fine of Rs 7.
If a person spits in the mouth of another person of the same caste as his, the perpetrator is subjected to a fine of Rs 5.
If a person from Impure Caste spits in the mouth of a person from higher caste, he is subjected to a fine of Rs 20. (pg 264)

The punishment for a person found guilty of premeditated murder is as follows:

If a person from Upadhyaya Brahman, Jaisi Brahman, Bhatta Deshi Brahman of Tirahut [the area to the north of Ganges in Bihar, India] murdered a person, the murderer’s entire property would be confiscated [by the state] and he would be branded using a hot metal with three Nepali letters da ma la as a mark of shame. (According to Brihat Nepali Shabdakosh [a Nepali dictionary], Damal sometimes also involved cutting the hair of a person from four sides to shame him/her. This form of punishment was in practice during the pre-1951 Rana rule in Nepal).
If the murderer is from Rajput or Chhetri or Liquor Drinking or Shudra castes then he gets capital punishment. (pg 267)

Some more provisions of the Muluki Ain-1854 that promoted casteism and untouchability are as follows:

If the foodgrain touched by a Christian, Muslim, Kami (blacksmith), Sarki (cobbler), Damai (tailor) and people from the Impure and Untouchable caste is not steamed or roasted such foodgrain is not impure. Ground, husked or shelled foodgrain even if touched by the aforementioned people does not become impure.
Raw meat and fish untouched by water, tobacco, perfume, rose water, spices, and fruits with pleasant aroma do not become impure even if they are touched by a Christian, Muslim, blacksmith, cobbler, tailor and a person from the Impure and Untouchable caste. The aforementioned food items can be eaten by sitting separately from the aforementioned persons.
If a person from Impure and Untouchable caste touches an earthen pot containing water, then the pot becomes impure. But if the earthen pot touched by the aforementioned persons has not touched water then the pot remains pure. If the aforementioned persons have touched pots made of wood or china or glass, then the pots become pure once they are washed and dried. (pg 352)
If a person has witnessed that water or any food item containing water has been touched by someone from Impure and Untouchable caste or by a pig, but reveals the fact only after someone from sacred thread wearing caste has consumed that impure water or food, then the man sitting on the truth shall be subjected to a fine of Rs 10. The person who consumed such food will become pure after undergoing a repentance ritual (Godan and Prayschit). (pg 252)

Has the Muluki Ain-1854 restricted Dalit in all sectors of state?

The Muluki Ain has not mentioned that the Dalits will be restricted in any sectors of the state.

Has the Muluki Ain-1854 barred Dalits from walking on the street or eating good food?

The Muluki Ain has not mentioned that the Dalits are not allowed to walk on the street or eat good food.

On the contrary, it has restricted the Sacred Thread Wearers including Brahman, Rajput, Jaisi and Chhetri people from consuming alcohol and fermented and distilled herbs and fruit beverages. (pg 357)

Also, the code has restricted Upadhyaya Brahmans [the highest among Brahmans] from consuming duck meat. (pg 357)

(Full text of the Muluki Ain-1854 provided by the Nepal Law Commission is the main reference in this article).

स्रोत नं. 15

Dongrap

स्रोत नं. 17

Conspiracy behind Prithivi Narayan Shah Victory: Hidden History of Nepal

“History is written by the winners.”
― Napoleon Bonapart

“History is written by the victors.”
-Winston Churchill (1874-1965) British Orator, Author and Prime Minister during World War II.

“History is written by the victors.”
― Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527), an Italian historian, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, writer, poet, and a founder of modern political science.

“History is always written by the winners. When two cultures clash, the loser is obliterated, and the winner writes the history books-books which glorify their own cause and disparage the conquered foe. As Napoleon once said, ‘What is history, but a fable agreed upon?”
― Dan Brown, an American author of thriller fiction, best known for the 2003 bestselling novel, The Da Vinci Code.

These great men quotes sound very true to me as well. When I was a child aged 11-12 I got the opportunity to learn about the history of Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, Hong Kong, etc how British was able to captured these countries. Similarly, Britishers were able to captured many African countries including India and rules these countries many years. Therefore, I was always skeptical and never ever trusted the history of Prithivi Naraya Shah won a victory over British troops of East India Company how he was able to defeated Britishers with arms and troops and was always wondering what’s the conspiracy behind the scene and last year came across the blog entitled “The Hidden History of Nepal” via facebook. It’s original write up has been extracted from Dr. Hans-Georg Behr’s book published in 1976 in German language titled “Nepal Geschenk der Gotter” from page 56 of the book. Nepal Geschenk der Götter means “Nepal Gifts of the Gods”. Dr. Behr was a German psychiatrist, Green Party parliamentarian, history professor (University of Vienna), Neurotoxicologist, Cannabis expert, Journalist, author and owner of the world’s largest collection of antique cannabis smoking pipes. He passed away on July 7, 2010, at the age of 72.
German writer-Hans-Georg Behr Nepal Geschenk der Gotter

I don’t know the exactly what is the truth but interesting to read about it and also know how and why worshiping “Kumari” and celebrating “Indra Jatra” had been started in Nepal. Also equally interesting to learn about WHY and HOW our men started to recruit as a Gurkhas in Indian troops and British Army.

“I destroy my enemies when I make them my friends.”
-Abraham Lincoln.

Saying one thing doing another things what an ill intention of almost all rulers and politicians. It is exactly what HIV (virus) does and also elites do to poor and innocent people of this world. So we always have to be skeptical towards them.

Prithivi Narayan Shah, Rana Regime ruler did the same to the king of Bhaktapur in the past establishing friendship as per his father, Narbhupal Shah aim in mind to take over Kathmandu valley in any cost.

The Hidden History of Nepal
by Dr. H.G. Behr ( From page 56 of the book)

Since 1716 Gorakh Nath Narabhupal Shah had been sitting on his throne made of mud. He found his throne very uncomfortable , and wanted to change it with the silver throne of the Kathmandu valley at any cost.

With this aim in mind, he married many times to widen his territory and built an alliances. But he was not successful. Finally, he changed his tactics. In 1732, he sent his 10-years-old son Prithvi Narayan to stay with the king of Bhaktapur.

In a covering letter, Narabhupal Shah requested the king of Bhaktapur to raise his son and provide him a good education, which was only possible in Nepal . But his real intention was to place his son in the palace so that he could spy on it and gather vital information.

The Malla King of Bhaktapur took in his young guest Prithivi Narayan in a friendship and showed him around every part of the palace. The king also let his children play with the prince of Gorkha. Prithivi Narayan has an execlent memory, and rememberd everything that he saw.

After five years, he returned to his hometown Gorkha, He had gathered much information about the reasons behind the quarrels among the valley kings, the exact quantity of military equipment and the strategic location in Nepal.

Prithvi Narayan was sure that he could conquer the pass of Nuwakot, so in the same year he sent his Gorkha soldiers to attack Nuwakot. The young prince had miscalculated or his father had underestimated the Mallas. The Malla kings banded together and their armies beat the Goarkha very badly.

Since then, the Gorkhas launched an attack to the valley every year right after the monsoon in order to possess it’s wealth. But they always failed. The Gorkhas came punctually at the end of September, but they never made any headway. This went on till 1764.

Prithvi then sent a peace message to the valley. The Mallas received this message with joy. The endless war was a strain on their resources, and it was also disrupting their business.

But Prithvi’s message was a clever deception : he really did not seek peace. The Mallas came to know that it was only a ploy when the Gorkhas blocked the northern trade route. Another thing that was worried the Mallas was that the Gorkhas had come into possession of excellent arms and lots of money with which to prosecute war. The Mallas didn’t know from where the Gorkhas had got them.

The British government had supplied the weapons to the Gorkhas, but his fact has been kept hidden in Nepal history’s books. The secret treaty under which this was done is still preserved in London in the archives of the East India Company.

The pact was signed by Captain Ceane and the Gorkhas. The British government agreed to supply weapons and advice, and in return the Gorkhas had to destroy the old trade routes between India and China.

The Moguls of India had a flourishing business relationship with the Mallas of Nepal, and this trade accounted for 30 percent of the wealth of the Moguls. The British want to get their hands on the riches.

According to the accord, Prithvi Narayan Shah received 800 muskets along with 21 British advisors. And in 1766, armed with British weapons and intelligence, the Gorkhas attacked Kirtipur. The people of of Kirtipur could not resist the superior arms, and two third of them were killed.

The cruel Gorkhas cut off the noses of the survivors. Till today this place is known as the “village of the noseless”. The Mallas then realised that the situation had become
precarious.

Jaya Prakash Malla, King of Kathmandu, was an intelligent ruler. He wrote a very touching letter to the East India Company appealing for assistance against the Gorkhas. The East India Company subsequently sent 15 very strong men under the command of the captain named Kinloch to help the Mallas. This captain was quite fond of drinking alcohol.

When the British arrived at the hills leading to the Kathmandu valley, they faked being defeated by the Gorkhas. The Gorkhas pretended to hit them and they acted as if they were wounded. Like they say in our language “Chhan daye then ya, jin khwaye then yaye.” The British wanted the Mallas to think that the Gorkhas were too powerful to fight with.

Jaya Prakash Malla then looked to religion for support. A prophet told the king that the future of Nepal depend on the Kumari. And so in 1768, the festival of Indra Jatra was celebrated with extra fervour. The Nepalese drank lots of rice beer during the festivities, especially on September 13 on the day of the Chariot festival.

They did noticed that the Gorkhas had entered the city until they had surrounded Kumari Chariot. Pandemonium broke out. Jaya Prakash jumped down from the chariot with his two wives and escaped to Lalitpur.

Prithvi Narayan Shah stepped in front of the bewildered crowd and shouted, “I’m now your king. Carry on with your drinking”

Many Newars drank rice beer because they were terror-stricken. The Gorkhas put their swords to the neck of the Newars who refused to accept the new king, so they had no choice but to obey.

In the following winter, the Gorkhas also conquered Lalitpur withour any opposition. The Mallas then gathered at the palace in Bhaktapur. The palace was well defended. And following the advice of his British advisors, Prithvi Narayan imposed a blockade.

After three years, Bhaktapur’s food stocks ran our. And one night , an illegitimate child of the Mallas opened the gates to the city. The valley’s three kings were arrested in their bedrooms. Jaya Prakash Malla committed suicide. To show his big-heartedness, Prithvi Narayan allowed Jaya Prakash to be brought to Pasupatinath for the final rites.

Bhaktapur’s king Ranjit Malla, who had given shelter to Prithvi Narayan Shah, was not killed; but his eyes were put out and sent to the Hindu holly city of Banaras. Tej Narasingh Malla of Lalitpur did not want to exchange any words with Prithvi Narayan.

Tej Narashingh was imprisoned in a vault and walled up. A small hole was left open to pass food to him. And for tow days, a bowl rice was put near the hole. When they say that Tej Narasingh had not touched the food the hole was bricked up.

Prithvi Narayan Shah did everything according to Captain Ceane’s suggestions. He said Prithvi Narayan, “The people of Nepal are very hard working and intelligent. That is why they are very dangerous. We need to strike terror into their hearts in order to control them. Don’t let them come to power even after many centuries. We need to obliterate their minds the idea of ever rising up to seize power. This can only be achieved through harsh laws and violence.

Accordingly, Newars were not allowed to read, write or repair their houses. If they broke the law, they laced the death penalty. In 1770, two and half thousand Newars were killed. The second generation was thoroughly intimidated and gave up. The third generation started to forget. The tax records of 1767 show that 176 different kinds of fruits and vegetables were grown in the valley.

After Prithvi Narayan Shah took control of Nepal, the old cities began to stagnate even though so much money was pouring into the cityscape that occurred were the result of earthquake.

The British naturally benefited greatly from their cruel plan, In 1778, the Mogul Empire became bankrupt and was force to become a colony of Britian. The whole of central Asia suffered after Prithvi Narayan took over Nepal and closed the old trade routes.

Tibet’s economy too was negatively affected. The depressed economy forced monasteries self-reliant. This was how feudalism emerged as a shadow on the gentle face of the Buddha. There was a negative effect even in China.

The British were also not very happy with the Gorkhas. The Gorkhas had tested blood, and did not give up violence. In this way, they conquered all the hill states. The Gorkhas turned the countries into a “forbidden land”. As long as the country remained closed up, the British were not disturbed. But in 1789 the Gorkhas become crazy and went to war with China and England.

Britain’s General Ochterlony said, “We have to keep the Gorkhas busy so that other things besides conquest come to their minds.”

Lord Hastings wrote in his diary in 1817. “To bring peace in Nepal, the Gorkhas must be kept busy and far from their country.”

This policy led to the recruitment of Gorkhas soldiers into the British army. The Nepal government took one-third of the money sent home by the Gorkhas. It was and important source of income for the government of Nepal.

After the Gorkhas began leaving Nepal, their was peace on the frontier as well as within the country. But there was no peace in the king’s palace. The Shahs fought among themselves. They didn’t care about the country or the people. They remained engrossed in their own interest.

Then came the Kot Parwa, and Junga Bahadur Rana took over power from the Shah king.

Reference:
1. “The Hidden History of Nepal” accessed from http://www.rednepal.com/2010/06/hidden-history-of-nepal.html
2. “The Hidden History of Nepal” by Ram Kumar Shrestha accessed from http://completenepal.wordpress.com/2011/07/06/hidden-history-of-nepal/
3. “The Fall of Newah Kingdom” by Ganga Lal Shrestha accessed from http://newah.lefora.com/2010/01/11/the-fall-of-newah-kingdom/

स्रोत नं. 18

मुक्दुम⁄मुन्धुम र सामानिजम: को बाँकि भाग

इभेन्कि तथा यसका समकक्षी साइबेरियन भाषाहरुमा तन्त्र मन्त्र तथा आरधनाका माध्यम प्रकृति र पितृ पुजन तथा साधना गर्ने बिधीलाई शामानिजम भनेजस्तै नेपालका बिभिन्न आदिबासीहरुमा आ–आफनै भाषामा सम्बोधन भए गरेको पाइन्छ । यहासम्म कि किरातहरु बिच नै पनि कोँइचले मुक्दुम, लिम्बु तथा केही राईहरुले मुन्धुम,याक्खाले मुन्थुम, साम्पाङले मुद्दुम आदि । जे जसरी सम्बोधन गरिए पनि आखिर यो माङ+हाङ इजम नै हो । माङ = प्रकृतिदेब र हाङहोपो = पितृदेब को पुजा आरधना एबं साधना गरिने हुदा नै यसलाई मुक्दुममुन्धुम भनिएको हो । अत यसलाई
एउटै अर्थमा भन्नु पर्दा shamanism को साटो manghangism अथवा केवल
Mangism भनेर बुझ्नुपर्ने हुन्छ । तन्त्रमन्त्रका माध्यम प्रकृति–पितृ मान्ने ब्यक्ति लाई शामन र यस्ता ब्यक्तिले अपनाउने बिधीलाई शामानिजम भन्ने परिप्रेक्षमा भने किरात समुदायहरुमा शामनहरुलाई पनि भिन्न भिन्न संबोधन गरिएको अवस्था बिध्यमान छ । कोँइच किरातमा ग्याँमि(स्त्री), पोइँबो(पुरुष

) तथा पुजारीलाई नाअ्सो, यसरी नै लिम्बुमा येमा(स्त्री) येवा(पुरुष) र फेदङबा तथा राइहरुमा होमे, जान्चा, कुबी, बोकोली, बिजुवा तथा नोक्सो, नाक्छुङ, आदि शब्दहरुमा ष्कm प्रत्यय लगाएर एकरुपता ल्याउन भने गारो देखिन्छ ।
किरातहरुले मुक्दुममुन्धुम भनेजस्तै कोरियन भाषमा मुक्दुमलाई मुग्यो Mugyo भनिन्छ (Chang Soo-kyung, Kim Tae-gon. Korean Shamanism – Muism. Jimoondang, 1998.) । मु Mu भन्नाले शामन धर्म Shingyo अर्थात religion of the shin (hanja: gods]” ( Margaret Stutley. Shamanism: A Concise Introduction. Routledge, 2003.) हुन्छ र यसलाई कोरियाको आदिबासी धर्म मानिन्छ | वर्तमान परिप्रेक्षमा यसलाई मुइजम Muism भनिने गरिन्छ । कोरियन भाषामा मुक्दुमि ब्यक्ति स्त्री भए mudang (hangul) र पुरुष भए baksu भनिन्छ । (Jung Young Lee, 1981. p. 4) | कोँइचमा दुमाहोपो भनेजस्तै कोरियनमा ancestral god लाई Dangun भनिन्छ ।
कोरियनमा मु Mu भनिए झैं चाइनिजमा यु wu, भनिएको पाइन्छ । (Jung Young Lee, 1981. p. 5) | Wuism चाइनाको हान समुदायको लोकधर्मका रुपमा प्रशिद्ध छ । (Fan Lizhu, Chen Na. The Revival of Indigenous Religion in China. Fudan University, 2013.) यो धर्ममा पनि प्रकृति र पितृलाई नै प्रमुख शक्तिको श्रोत मानेर देबता मानिन्छ जसलाई Shen भनेर सम्बोधन गरिन्छ ।
जापानी सिन्तो परम्परा अनुसार मिको Miko भन्नाले स्त्री पुजारी shrine (jinja) maiden जो शामनकै अर्थमा लिइन्छ तथा Geki भन्नाले पुरुष शामन बुझाउछ । यो मिको परम्परा जापानको प्रगऐतिहासिक जोमो काल (14,000–300 BC) देखिनै भएको मानिन्छ । (Aston, William George. Shinto: way of the gods : 1905) मिको शब्दको प्रादुरभाव यमाताइकोकु , प्राचीन जापानको shaman queen, Himiko (170 – 248 AD) काल देखि भएको अनुमान गरिन्छ । ओकिनावा, जापानको रुक्यु टापुमा आज पनि सामानिजम पद्धति कायमै छ जाहाका शामानलाई मिको र गेकि नभनेर ‘Noro’ / ‘Yuta’ भनिन्छ तथा शामानिजमलाई Miyako shamanism अर्थात Mikoism भनिन्छ ।
मङगोलियन शामनहरुले जम्मा ९९ शक्तिहरुलाई मान्दछन जस्लाई tngri भनिन्छ, जसमध्य ५५ white र ४४ black tngri मानिन्छन् । यी tenri साधक शामनहरु लाई ĵigari र ĵigari का अलवा shamanesses ब्यक्तिलाई abĵiya भनिन्छ । भारोपेली आर्यहरुले प्रयोगगर्ने झाँकृ शब्द संस्कृत भाषाको नभै मङगोल भाषाबाटै सापटी लिइएको हो ।
यसरी बुझदा आगो, पानी, हावा तथा भूमि पुज्ने किरात संस्कार संस्कृति समाबिष्ट मुक्दुममुन्धुम प्रगऐतिहासिक धार्मिक सभ्यता प्रमाणीत हुन्छ । प्रकृति, पितृ, सारा ब्रह्माण्ड चराचर जगतलाई शक्तिका रुपमा साधना गर्ने धर्मलाई बिद्धान Mircea Eliade ले उनको पुस्तक”Cosmos and History : 1959” मा Cosmic Religion भनेर परिभाषीत गरेका छन् ।(Charles R. Menroe : World Religions an Introducion : p.26) मेरो ब्यत्तिगत बिचारमा पनि यो परिभाषाले संसारभरका प्रकृति तथा पितृ पुजक समुदायका धर्मलाई समेट्न सक्ने ठानेको छु ।
क्रमश:

पुरानो भाग

स्रोत नं. 19

Soyombo in Mongolian flag

soyombo_1
Since ancient times, the Soyombo ideogram has been the national emblem of freedom and independence of the Mongolians. At the top of the ideogram is a flame, which symbol­izes blossoming, revival, improvement and continuation of the family. The threeprongs of the flamesignify the prosperity of the people in the past, the present and the future. Below the sign of the flame there are the sun and the cres­cent, traditionally symbolizing the origin of the Mongolian people.
The combination of the flame, the sun and the cres­cent expresses the wish “May the Mongolian people live and prosper”.

The triangles at the top and bottom of the Soyombo are a general expression of the people’s willingness to defend the freedom and independence of the country, while therectangles are the symbols of honesty, justice and nobility.

The fish, in Mongolian folklore, is a creature that never closes its eyes, i.e. remains vigilant. The two fish in the emblem symbolize the unity of the people: men and women. The cumulative meaning is: May the whole people be united, wise and vigilant. The two vertical rectangles on the sides of the emblem signify fortress walls and are a graphic representation of the ancient Mongolian saying: “Two men in friendship are stronger than walls of stone”. In the Soyombo they have the meaning: “May the whole people be unified in friendship, and then it will be stronger than the stone walls of a fortress”.

स्रोत नं. 20

Before Prithvi Narayan Shah:

Chandra Vamshi RajGharana was “Rishi Raj Bhattarak. From this man’s dynasty came Kul Mandan Khan who later took the “Upadhi”(Rank) called “Shah” and became Kulmandan Shah.

* Dravya Shah (Grandson of Kul Mandan Shah, Youngest son of Yaso Bramha Shah, the King of Lamjung)was at first prince of Lamjung became king of Gorkha in 1616 BS Bhadra Krishnastami Wednesday. To become the king of Gorkha by winning the race. He died in 1627 BS.

* After Dravya Shah, his successor and his son Purandar Shah became the king for 35 years. After Purandar Shah came his son Chhatra Shah who ruled only for 7 months.

*Ram Shah ( Grandson of Dravya Shah, Brother of Chhatra Shah) became king of Gorkha in 1666BS. and ruled for 27 years.

* After Ram Shah, his successors were Dambar Shah, Krishna Shah, Rudra Shah and Prithvi Pati Shah repectively.

*After Prithvi Pati Shah, great Grandson of Ram Shah and Bir Bhadra Shah’s son Nara Bhupal Shah became the king of Gorkha. He ruled Gorkha from 1773 BS to 1799BS. After loosing battle with Nuwakot he went spent rest of his life worshipping. Due to risk of loosing Gorkha, his elder queen Chandra Prabhawati, forced him to stay in the palace and ruled Gorkha on her own for some time.

* After the demise of NaraBhupal Shah became the king then Prithvi Narayan Shah.

स्रोत नं. 21

Every day at Kirateshwar, a small number of Kirants come for various rituals. A few of the attendants are members of the three committees that are responsible for the development, administration and pujas at Kirateshwar. According to the gurus, Kirateshwar was the place where the Kirantis of old prayed and buried their dead further down towards Pashupati.

A small shrine consisting of an eight-stepped pyramid that is painted white is at the center. A canopy protects the shrine from rain and around it there are many white flags with writings in a strange script. The two priests turned out to be Kiranti gurus: one a Limbu priest named Khadga Sher Nembang and the other, a Rai priest named Jit Bahadur Rai. The writing on the white prayer flags I was told, is a Kiranti script. Every day, these two priests pray here; first separately and then together at the central shrine (the Pyramid). There are many small and simple shrines around the place. Although Kirants are not really Hindus (many supposedly started following Hindu practices after the Gorkha conquest in the 18th century) they pray to Shiva. This practice goes back to a time when people were either followers of Shiva (Shaivites) or Vishnu (Vaishnavites) and Hinduism was still evolving.

The Limbu guru says, “Our ancestors prayed here and we are just carrying on the tradition. We pray three times a day; morning, noon and evening.” Not much is known of the Kirants who ruled over the valley before the Lichhavis arrived, but if one is to search, many religious practices like the hoisting of lingos (ceremonial poles) began during the Kiranti period. They are said to have ruled the Nepal valley (now Kathmandu valley) for more than 700 years beginning before the birth of Christ. Kathmandu valley in the early days was known as Nepal, a fact quite easily verified as villagers coming to the valley always said they were going to Nepal. Even now, some people living in the hills around the valley refer to Kathmandu as Nepal.

Historians have been able to find the names of 32 Kiranti rulers beginning with Yalamber who is even mentioned in the Mahabharata. A Kiranti army is said to have fought in the epic battle. Legend has it that when Krishna asked the Kiranti King Yalambar whose side he would take, the bold king replied, “The weaker/losing side.” On hearing this, Krishna is said to have beheaded the Kiranti king with such a terrific blow, that Yalambar’s head reached the Nepal valley .It is believed that the mask kept at the Akash Bhairav temple in Indrachowk belongs to Yalambar.

स्रोत नं. 22

शाह र राणाहरुले लिम्बुवानमा गरेका आक्रमणहरू

१. वि.सं. १८२९को साउन महिनामा गोरखाका राजा पृथ्वीनारायण शाहले किरात राज्यहरूको विरुद्ध आक्रमण गर्ने योजना बनाए।

२. वि.सं. १८३०मा गोर्खाली सेनाले लिम्बुवानमाथि खूनी हमला गर्‍यो। यस युद्धमा मेवाखोलाका शिया, आक्पा र मुकुम्बाहरूको ज्यान गयो।

३. वि. सं. १८३१ बैसाक २५ गते गोर्खाली सेना रघु राना र लिम्बु सेनापति काङसोरेबीच मल्ल युद्ध भयो। वीरताका साथ लडिरहेको काङसोरेको षडयन्त्रपूर्वक हत्या भयो।

४. वि. सं.१८३१ साउन २२ गते गोर्खाली सेना र लिम्बुबीचमा ऐतिहासिक सन्धि भयो।

५. वि.सं.१८३३मा विजयपुरे राजा बुद्धिकर्णको हत्या भयो।

६. वि.सं.१८३७मा नेपाल र अङ्ग्रेजबीचको सुगौली सन्धि भयो। यसपछि लिम्बु तथा लेप्चा बसी आएको भू-भाग तीन भागमा विभाजित भई सिक्किम, लिम्बुवान र दार्जिलिङ भयो।

७. वि.सं.१८४३ सालमा, रणबहादुर शाहको पालादेखि लिम्बुवान राज्यमा तिरो लगाइयो। चन्द्रसम्शेरको पालामा लिम्बुहरूको मुन्धुम र धर्मग्रन्थहरू चैनपुरमा लगेर जलाइयो।

८. वि.सं.१९५२को माघ महिनामा ताप्लेजुङ हाङपाङका बाजहाङ आङबुहाङलाई राणा शासनको विरोध गरेकोमा फुङलिङ बजार नजीक पात्लेको रुखमा झुण्ड्याएर मारियो।

९. वि.सं. १९०१मा जंगबहादुर राणाले लिम्बुहरूको सम्पूर्ण राजकीय अधिकार खोसेर लिम्बुवान राष्ट्रलाई पल्लो किरात र राजा उपाधिलाई सुब्बा लेख्ने सनद जाहेर गरेर लिम्बु राजनेताहरूलाई आफ्नो कर्मचारीसरह बनाए।

१०. वि.सं. २०१७ साल पुस १ गतेको फौजी कारवाहीले लिम्बुवानको ऐतिहासिक सीमालाई तहसनहस गरी कोशी र मेची अञ्चलका पहाडी जिल्लाहरू इलाम, पान्थर, ताप्लेजुङ, तेह्रथुम, संखुवासभा र धनकुटामा विभाजन गरियो। यिनै क्षेत्रहरूलाई योभन्दा पहिले पल्लो किरात लिम्बुवान भनिन्थ्यो।

११. वि.सं. २०२१ सालमा लिम्बुहरूको पूर्ण अधिकार भएको किपट व्यवस्थामाथि भूमिसुधार ऐन लागू गरियो। पछि सरकारले नापी गरी मालपोत लागू गरेपछि किपटको अस्तित्व सकियो।

स्रोत नं. 23

History of Limbuwan: Kirat people of Limbu nationality

Limbuwan had a distinct history and political establishment until its unification with the kingdom of Gorkha in 1774 AD. During King Prithvi Narayan Shah’s unification of Nepal, the present-day Nepal east of Arun and Koshi rivers was known as Pallo Kirat Limbuwan. It was divided into 10 Limbu kingdoms of which Morang kingdom was the most powerful and had a central government. The capital of Morang kingdom was Bijaypur (present-day Dharan). After the Limbuwan Gorkha War and seeing the threat of the rising power of the British East India Company, the kings and ministers of all the 10 Limbu kingdoms of Limbuwan gathered in Bijaypur to agree upon the Limbuwan-Gorkha Treaty. This treaty formally merged the 10 Limbu kingdoms into the Gorkha kingdom but it also had a provision for autonomy of Limbuwan under the “kipat” system.
Gorkhali hegemoniesEdit

After the completion of the conquest of the Kathmandu Valley in 1769, the Gorkhali army marched east towards the Kirat territory. The Sen rulers of eastern Nepal, known as Hindupati, had established a weak rule in the Kirat region by adopting a policy of mutual understanding with the local Kirat leaders. The Gorkhali military campaign, in contrast, brought with it a forceful and brutal occupation. During the conquest, the invading authorities succeeded to capture “Majh Kirat” or state ruled by Rai’s and Sen but repeatedly defeated by the hands of “Pallo Kirat” state ruled by Limbu. After diplomacy by Kirati Magar General of King Prithvi Narayan Shah (Actually Shah Dynasty was started in Lamjung State presently District by winning marathon competition, a competition winner getting prized to be King of Lamjung, During his tenure (King Dravya Shah “Founder of Shah Dynasty” invaded Gorkha and merged Lamjung into it totally vanishing marathon winner King system in Lamjung and making native Magar his Queen, courtiers and generals ), a Magar dominant area- near Gorkha state) stating Magar, Shah (who are originally Rajput of India who have fled from moguls invasion or who refused to give daughter to or serve moguls) and Limbu into “Mitari Synoo” – a tradition which promise become friend forever diping hands in Salt Water in Zinc bowl. Shah King also promises to give autonomy power to “Pallo Kirat” saying “Your tribe is never to be diminished as long as there is sun and moon .Any reduction of Power from my successors will result in curse to my Dynasty. ” in agreement called “KIPAT” which is till now held by Limbu Community. In return Limbu will fight for expansion of Gorkha in east and stop Invasion from east from state like Sikkim and Bhutan. According to old text of Kirati Limbu and story passed to next generation, this agreement cause huge division among them. The rebelling side arguing not to trust King Prithvi Narayan Shah. Out of 14 clan of Limbu 3-4 clan moved towards Sikkim and further down to Burma along with some Kirati Rai.
Till late 19th Century, Limbu ruled “Pallo Kirat” worshiping supreme power called Tagera Ningwaphuma, who is also known as the supreme source of knowledge similarly Him sammang, Yuma Sammang, and Theba Sammang.

स्रोत नं. 24

Mundhum-The Scripture of Kirat People

The word Mundhum means the power of great strength and the Kirat people of east Nepal take it to be a true, holy and a powerful scripture.
The Mundhum is divided into two parts. The first is called the Thungsap Mundhum and the second is called the Peysap Mundhum. The Thungsap Mundhum is the original one and came from the very words of mouth till the art of writing was introduced and was referred to as the oral Mundhum in books. It was an epic recited in songs by the learned Sambas or poets. The Kirat priests in the beginning were called the Sambas where, “ Sam” means song and, “ Ba” means the one who (male) knows the Song or Sam.
The Peysap Mundhum is a written book about religion. It is divided into four parts. They are the Soksok Mundhum, Yehang Mundhum, Sapji Mundhum and Sap Mundhum. The Soksok Mundhum contains the stories of creation of the universe, the beginning of mankind, the cause and effect of the sins, the creation of evil spirits, such as the evil spirits of Envy, Jealousy and Anger and the cause and effect of death in childhood.
The Yehang Mundhum contains the story of the first leader of mankind who made laws for the sake of improvement of human beings from the stage of animal life to the enlightened life and ways to control them by giving philosophy on spiritualism. In this book, the leader has made rules for marriage, arbitration, purification and religion. The story of destruction of human beings by deluge and the cause of existence of many languages among the Kirat people, the social customs of seasonal worship to the worship of God, the rules of purification on child birth and death are mentioned in the Lepmuhang Mundhum.
As the Kirat people in the beginning were rationalistic idolaters, they neither had temples, altars nor images, conceiving that none of these was necessary, but that the God resided in light and fire. Hence, they worshipped spirits whom they believe to be the residents of fire and the sun. So according to Sapji Mundhum, the

स्रोत नं. 25

स्रोत नं. 26

Mongol Full Movie 11th AD

स्रोत नं. 16

Ghinggis Khan
Ghinggis Khan
images
The Genghis Khan Mausoleum in the town of Ejin Horo Qi, Inner Mongolia, China
The Genghis Khan Mausoleum in the town of Ejin Horo Qi, Inner Mongolia, China
Mahaguru Falgunanda Limbu/Kirati
Mahaguru Falgunanda Limbu/Kirati
Guru Rinpoche/Padmasambhava Tamang
Guru Rinpoche/Padmasambhava Tamang
पारुहाङ राजा र सुम्निमा रानी ।
पारुहाङ राजा र सुम्निमा रानी ।
A statue of Kali at Pashupati. Legend says that this statue is rising and when it emerges fully the universe will be destroyed and a new age will come.
A statue of Kali at Pashupati. Legend says that this statue is rising and when it emerges fully the universe will be destroyed and a new age will come.
पशुपतिनाथ काठमाण्डौं महादेव राजाको दरबार र चिहान पनि हो ।
पशुपतिनाथ काठमाण्डौं महादेव राजाको दरबार र चिहान पनि हो ।
 
स्यम्भूनाथ चैत्ये/स्तुपा, तमाङ राजाको दरबार र चिहान पनि हो ।
स्यम्भूनाथ चैत्ये/स्तुपा, तमाङ राजाको दरबार र चिहान पनि हो ।
बौद्ध चैत्य/स्तुपा, तमाङ रानीको दरबार र चिहान पनि हो ।
बौद्ध चैत्य/स्तुपा, तमाङ रानीको दरबार र चिहान पनि हो ।
अन्तिम तमाङ राजा रानी
अन्तिम तमाङ राजा रानी
Yalamber or Yalambar also known as Barbarika is the first great Kirat King who conquered Kathmandu valley defeating Gopal vansa and established Kirata Kingdom. His dynasty was succeeded by Licchavi. He had the biggest empire Nepal ever had.
Yalamber or Yalambar also known as Barbarika is the first great Kirat King who conquered Kathmandu valley defeating Gopal vansa and established Kirata Kingdom. His dynasty was succeeded by Licchavi. He had the biggest empire Nepal ever had.
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शान्तिको लागी अन्तिम मौका !
ओझेलमा पर्न सक्दैन तमुवान
दुई विकल्पः लोपउन्मुख हुनबाट बच्न पहिचान सहितको सङ्घीयतामा जाने कि भारतमा बिलय हुने ?
एक खुट्टीले नेपाल उभिँदैन
पाँच प्रश्नको छिनोफानो हो संघीयता
" नेपालमा आदिवासीहरुलाई निर्णायक तहमा पुग्नै नै दिइदैन "
कांग्रेस एमालेमा ‘पहाडे बाहुन क्षेत्री’को बाहुल्य छ
In Nepal, maintaining the momentum
कांग्रेस–एमालेको प्रदेश र हिन्दू पहिचान
सर्वस्वीकार्य, सर्वसहमतीय संविधान आवश्यक
राज्य पुनः संरचना र तामाङसालिङ
आदिवासी जनजातिले जारी गरे घोषणापत्र
बुद्धको देशमा 'असिल हिन्दुस्तान'
पहिचान जातियता होइन राष्ट्रियताको आधरमा हुनु पर्छ
प्रशासनिक संघीयताको खेल
संविधान किन बनेन ?
अलमलमा संघीयतावादी
The Right Eyes Sees the White Lies
आदिवासी विहीन राजनितीक समिती औचित्यहिन
आवश्यकता पहिचानसहितको संघीयता
कष्टमय जीवनले स्पात बनाएको छ
आदिवासी असक्षम कि राज्य प्रायोजित षढयन्त्र ?
शासक दलों की बदनीयती का पर्दाफाश
नर्सरीका फुलमा रुमल्लिएको नेपाल
संस्मरण : गजेन्द्र बाबू की मौत पर माछ-मदिरा की पार्टी
मूलबासी मास्ने गोप्य दस्ताबेज गायत्री मन्त्र
मुलुकलाई अनिर्णयको बन्दी बनाउन पाइदैन
मूलवासी भूमीपूत्रहरूमा हार्दिक अपिल
'पहिचान'ले हारेकै हो ?
मडारीरहेको छ महायुद्धको प्रतिछाँया
क्यामिला र शिक्षामा लोकतन्त्र
किन खस्कँदैछ ठूला राजनीतिक दलहरू ?
सिरिया संक्रमणको निदान
शान्ति दोङ्को निधन- एउटा अपूरो अध्यायको स्मृति
चाम्लिङको रेकर्डमा चुनौती
सर्वोच्चअदालतको अन्यायपूर्ण फैसला
सैनिक हेडक्वार्टर पुग्यो तामाङ ल्होसारको विवाद
नेपालको कृषि क्षमता अभिवृद्धि कसरी ?
किन भैरहेको छ किरात येले संवत बारे दुविधा ?
नेपाल में स्थापित ‘गणतन्त्रत्मक लोकतन्त्र’- भारतीय लोकतन्त्र की जीत
Need for change
ल्होछर कसरी र के को आधारमा मनाउने ?
परिवर्तनकारिहरूको आवाज दवाउन खोजिए भयंकर दुर्घटना हुन सक्छ
Politics of Lumbini- Part two
Triumps and Trials of Inclusive Representation of Women in Nepal
आदिवासीहरू समानुपातिक अस्त्रको चक्रव्युहमा फसे सय वर्ष दास
Buddhist Rights in Secular Nepal-Part One
लिम्बुवानमा यसरी लादियो दशै
तामाङ समुदायको मृत्यु संस्कार: एक झलक
नेपाल मूलबासी मंगोल समुदायले आर्ज्याको मुलुक हो पृथ्वीनारायण शाहले होईन ।
तामाङ समुदायको जागरणको निम्ति मंगोल डेमोक्रेटिक पार्टीको संदेश
ओझेलमा पारिएका तामाङराज्यहरू
किन जाग्दैन तामाङ् समुदायको स्वाभिमान ?
मंगोल डेमोक्रेटिक पार्टी : एकथोपा रगत भएसम्म लड्ने
तामाङ समुदायका तीन हजार युवा-युवतीहरूले किन उठाए हतियार ?
मंगोल डेमोक्रेटिक पार्टीद्वार राष्ट्रीय मुक्ति आन्दोलनको घोषणा
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